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South Georgia Chronology

Bob Headland has kindly provided us with this chronology of events in South Georgia.

EXTRACT FROM

        A CHRONOLOGY OF

         ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION.

[EDITED EXTRACT FROM THE COMPUTER RECORD]

        for entries containing the terms « South Georgia,

         South Sandwich Islands and Shag Rocks ».

Prepared 19 June 2009

This extract may be referred to as being from:

HEADLAND, Robert Keith 2009.

A Chronology of Antarctic Exploration.

London: Bernard Quaritch

ISBN 978-0-9550852-8-4

        R. K. Headland

        University of Cambridge

SCOTT POLAR RESEARCH INSTITUTE

        Lensfield Road, Cambridge,

        UNITED KINGDOM, CB2 1ER

        Telephone (01223) 336540, Facsimile 336549, Telex 81240 CAMSPL G, Electronic mail RKH10@CAM.AC.UK

Shag Rocks; 55∙55°S, 42∙03°W

Six isolated rocks, and outlying Black Rock; about 260 km W of South Georgia; of sedimentary

origin; in the Southern Ocean.

Area: 0∙2 km². Highest elevation: 71 m. Unglacierized.

Probably sighted 1762, confirmed 1819, first landing 1956. Uninhabitable.

British territory, part of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; counter-claimed by Argentina,

part of the ‘Islas del Atlántico Sur’.

South Georgia; 53∙50° to 55∙00°S, 35∙50° to 38∙67°W

One main island, several small ones, many islets and rocks; outlying Clerke Rocks 65 km SE; mainly

of sedimentary origin; in the Southern Ocean.

Area: 3755 km². Highest elevation: 2934 m (Mount Paget). 57% glacierized.

Probably sighted 1675, confirmed 1756, first landing 1775, sealers arrived 1786. Permanent

occupation (whaling, scientific, and military stations) from 1904 (sealers and scientific personnel

have previously wintered). Whaling and sealing stations operated 1904-65.

British territory, part of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; counter-claimed by Argentina,

part of the ‘Islas del Atlántico Sur’.

South Sandwich Islands; 56∙30° to 59∙47°S, 26∙23° to 28∙18°W

390 km chain of eleven small volcanic islands (several active); in the Southern Ocean.

Area: 310 km². Highest elevation: 1375 m (Mount Belinda, Montagu Island). 80% glacierized.

Sighted 1775, first landing 1818 (by sealers). Uninhabited (scientific and military personnel

have wintered).

British territory, part of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; counter-claimed by Argentina,

part of the ‘Islas del Atlántico Sur’.

        

1501-02 Portuguese voyage (from Lisboa)

         Gonçalo Coelho (?)        ?

         Possibly reached latitude 52°S on the Patagonian coast. Amerigo Vespucci (Tuscany), the pilot, described a rocky coast and intense cold. [The discovery of South Georgia or Falkland Islands has been attributed to the voyage.]

        

1618-19 Spanish expedition (from Lisboa)

         Bartolomé Garcia de Nodal Nuestra Señora de Atocha

         Gonçalo Garcia de Nodal   Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso

         Dispatched by Rey Felipe III to confirm the discoveries of Willem Corneliszoon Schouten and Jacob Le Maire; made the first circumnavigation of Tierra del Fuego and discovered Islas Diego Ramírez, 12 February 1619. [These were the most southerly recorded land in the world until James Cook discovered South Sandwich Islands in 1775.]

        

1674-75 English mercantile voyage (from Lima for England)

         Antoine de la Roche      ?

         Probably discovered South Georgia, April 1675, while blown off course (thus the first land sighted on the Southern Ocean, but see also Jean-Baptiste-Charles Bouvet de Lozier, 1738-39); possibly sighted and landed on Gough Island in May; reported a large non-existent ‘Isla Grande’. [Roche, also recorded as Antonio, was a merchant born in London; his father was French. Details of the voyage remain unclear.]

        

1699-1700 English naval expedition (from London)

         Edmond Halley    Paramour

         The earliest purely scientific marine expedition, in a vessel built for the purpose, undertaken to study magnetic declination in the North and South Atlantic Oceans, resulting in the earliest magnetic chart; penetrated to 52∙40°S, 43°W (near South Georgia), where floating ice and fog prevented further exploration; made one of the earliest sketches of tabular Antarctic icebergs. Visited Tristan da Cunha but made no landing. [The voyage started in 1698 but returned briefly to England, June 1699.]

        

1756 Spanish mercantile voyage (from Callao for Cádiz)

         Gregorio Jerez   León or Santo Christo de Auxilio y

         Nuestra Señora de los Dolores

         During a return voyage to Cádiz rounded Cabo de Hornos in very severe weather, was blown off course and sighted ‘Isla de San Pedro’ [South Georgia], 30 June. A passenger, Nicolas-Pierre Guyot, Sieur Duclos of Saint-Malo (France), described the voyage and the sea committal of Don Domingo Ortiz de Rozas, the Governor of Chile, off the island. [The vessel is recorded under both names. On reaching Cádiz the pilot, Enrique Cormer (Henry Cormer from Saint-Malo) reported the discovery to the Board of Expert Pilots who concluded the island was probably that sighted by Antoine de la Roche in 1675.]

        

1762 Spanish voyage (from Lima for Cádiz)

         Joseph de la Llana       Aurora

         Reported the discovery of ‘Aurora Islands’ at 53°S, 48°W. [These may have been Shag Rocks. There were several subsequent attempts, by sealers and others, to find the islands.]

        

1769 Spanish voyage

         ?      San Miguel

         Sighted ‘Aurora Islands’ (probably Shag Rocks).

        

1772-75 British naval expedition

         James Cook (2nd voyage; senior commander)

        HMS Resolution

         Tobias Furneaux  HMS Adventure

         Circumnavigated the Earth in high southern latitude; the Antarctic Circle was crossed for the first time, 17 January 1773, and the idea of a ‘Southern Continent’ extending to temperate latitudes dispelled; reached farthest south (71∙17°S at 106∙90°W), 30 January 1774 (making a second crossing of the circle); sighted Bird Island and landed on South Georgia, taking possession for King George III in Possession Bay, 17 January 1775; charted Clerke Rocks; discovered southern South Sandwich Islands, 30 January 1775; searched unsuccessfully for Bouveto/ya. Joseph Gilbert and William Hodges made water-colour sketches of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands. Furneaux separated from Cook at New Zealand and searched for Bouveto/ya during his return voyage in 1774.

        

1774 Spanish voyage

         Joseph de la Llana       Aurora

         Again sighted ‘Aurora Islands’ (probably Shag Rocks).

1777 South Georgia; James Cook’s account of his second expedition was published in London this year. As a result of its description of Fur Seals on South Georgia British sealers started work there in 1786. They were soon followed by others from United States and the industry developed rapidly. In 1791 there were at least 102 vessels engaged in securing Fur Seal pelts and Elephant Seal oil in Southern Ocean, but there is little certain information of new discoveries by these sealers until the beginning of the 19th century. The old sealing industry continued at South Georgia to 1913. [See also South Shetland Islands, 1819.]

        

1779 British (?) voyage

         ?      Pearl

         Sighted ‘Aurora Islands’ (probably Shag Rocks). [The nationality of this voyage has also been recorded as Spanish and the vessel’s name as Perla.]

        

1786-88 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Thomas Delano    Lord Hawkesbury

         Visited South Georgia and obtained a full cargo of Fur Seal pelts.

        

1787-88 British sealing voyage (from London)

         John Leard       Intrepid

         Visited Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego. Leard wrote to Charles Jenkinson (Lord Hawkes- bury) President of the Council for Trade and Foreign Plantations, London, concerning the control of sealing in Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, Isla de los Estados, South Georgia, and Falkland Islands, 16 July 1788.

        

1787-88 British sealing and whaling voyage (from London)

         Thomas Smith     Lucas

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1788 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Shadrick Kearn   Quaker

         Visited South Georgia; William Kearn collected a Leopard Seal skull for the Royal College of Surgeons. [Some details of this voyage are uncertain.]

        

1788-89 British sealing and whaling voyage (from London)

         William Aiken    Lucas

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1789-90 British sealing and whaling voyage (from London)

         Stephen Smith    Lucas

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1789-94 Spanish naval expedition (from Cádiz)

         Alejandro Malaspina      Descubierta

         José Bustamante y Guerra  Atrevida

         Following extensive explorations in the Pacific Ocean, Atrevida was dispatched in 1794 to ascertain the position of ‘Aurora Islands’ and reported 3 rocks near 53°S, 48°W (possibly icebergs, Shag Rocks are 6°E of this position). Luis Neé, a botanist aboard Descubierta, made collections at Port Egmont, Falkland Islands. Bustamante and Malaspina independently determined position of Islas Diego Ramírez.

        

1790 Spanish voyages (from Montevideo)

         Manuel de Oyarvido       Princesa

         ?      Dolores

         Vessels of the Real Compañía de las Filipinas, stationed in Lima, separately sighted ‘Aurora Islands’ (probably Shag Rocks).

        

1790-91 British sealing and whaling voyage (from London)

         William Raven    Jackall

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1790-92 British sealing and whaling voyages (from London)

         Capt. Cook       London

         William Clark    Sparrow

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1791-92 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Christopher Horner       Astrea

         Visited South Georgia.

1792-93 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Thomas Pitman    Ann

         Visited South Georgia; took 3000 barrels [500 x 103 l] of Elephant Seal oil and 50 000 Fur Seal pelts.

        

1792-95 United States sealing voyage (from New Haven)

         Daniel F. Greene Nancy

         Roswell Woodward Polly

         Visited South Georgia in company; Nancy was the first vessel to take Fur Seal pelts direct from there to the China market, circumnavigating the Earth in the process; Polly sailed to New York direct, arriving in 1794.

        

1793-94 British sealing voyages (from London)

         Richard McKinstry        Active

         Thomas Pitman    Ann

         Thomas Hopper    Fox

         Matthew Swain    Kitty

         Thomas Blythe    Lively

         Henry Mackay (or Mackie) Lord Hawkesbury

         William Watson   Mary

         Ranson Jones     Minerva

         Lewis Llewellin  Sybil

         Visited South Georgia; Mary took 5000 Fur Seal pelts.

        

1794-95 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Henry Mackay (or Mackie) Lord Hawkesbury

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1795-96 British sealing voyages (from London)

         Capt. Farmer     Sally

         Henry Mackay (or Mackie) Young William

         Visited South Georgia; Sally was wrecked, 28 March 1796, complement rescued by Mackay.

        

1798-99 British sealing voyages (from London)

         Edward Clerk     Prince Edward

         Lewis Llewellin  Sybil

         Visited Iles Kerguelen, called at Cape Town and continued to South Georgia; Prince Edward was wrecked on the coast of Brazil during the return voyage.

        

1799 United States sealing voyage (from New York)

         ?      Regulator

         Wrecked at South Georgia; cargo of 14 000 Fur Seal pelts was sold to a British sealing vessel which rescued the crew. [A figurehead, which was found at Right Whale Bay in 1970, may be that from Regulator.]

        

1799-1800 British sealing voyages (from London)

         Stephen Macey    Aurora

         Lewis Llewellin  Canada

         John Shuttleworth        Hercules

         Magnus Smith     Lively

         Visited South Georgia where Canada was wrecked.

        

1799-1800 United States whaling and sealing voyage (from Nantucket)

         Abraham Swain    Charles

         Visited South Georgia; continued to the Pacific Ocean where reported ‘Swain’s Island’ at 59°S, 90°W. [Later disproved and removed from charts; other positions are recorded.]

        

1799-1801 United States sealing voyages (from Nantucket)

         Obediah Fitch    Columbia

         ?      Hero

         Capt. Brightman  Indian

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1799-1801 British sealing voyage (from London)

         William Beacon (or Bacon)        Earl Spencer

         Visited South Georgia.

1799-1801 United States whaling and sealing voyages (from Nantucket)

         Uriah Swain      Mars

         William Joy      Ranger

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1799-1801 United States whaling and sealing voyage (from New Bedford)

         Griffin Barney   Barclay

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1799-1802 United States whaling and sealing voyage (from Salem)

         Obediah Wyer     Concord

         Mayhew Folger    Minerva

        with the shallops Penguin, Clapmatch, and Serapiall

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia. Continued round Cabo de Hornos to Canton to sell Fur Seal pelts.

        

1799-1802 United States sealing voyages (from Nantucket)

         Hezekiah Pinkham President

         Jonathan Paddack Prudence

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1799-1802 French sealing voyage (from Bordeaux)

         Pierre François Péron

         Stephen Hall     Sally

         Visited Tristan da Cunha and South Georgia; searched unsuccessfully for Gough Island; visited Prince Edward Islands, Iles Kerguelen, and Ile Saint-Paul (date 5 avril 179? carved on a rock face on Ile Saint-Paul). [Stephen Hall of United States was designated captain to avoid difficulties arising from the hostilities between France and Britain.]

        

1800 British sealing voyage (from London)

         J. French        Morse

         Visited South Georgia where met Aspasia (1800-02, q.v.).

        

1800-01 British sealing voyages (from London)

         Edward Clerk     Duke of Kent

         Matthew Swain    Eliza

         Visited South Georgia; called at Cape Town during the return voyage.

        

1800-02 United States sealing voyage (from New York)

         Edmund Fanning   Aspasia

         Visited Tristan da Cunha; probably made the most profitable sealing voyage to South Georgia, where 57 000 Fur Seal pelts were secured and taken direct to China. [Fanning reported that, in addition to Aspasia, there were 16 other British and United States sealing vessels working at South Georgia during the 1800-01 summer. Reported fish (Notothenidae) abundant.]

        

1800-03 United States sealing voyage (from New Haven)

         Nathaniel Storer Sally

         Visited Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, and South Georgia for 2 summers. [Storer’s 9-year-old son accompanied him.]

        

1801-02 British sealing voyage (from London)

         William Beacon   Earl Spencer

         Visited South Georgia, where wrecked.

        

1801-02 British sealing voyages (from London)

         William Porter   Duke of Kent

         Howes Swain      Princess Amelia

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1801-02 Cape Colony sealing voyage (from Cape Town)

         Capt. Brightman  Phiamingi

         Visited South Georgia, Cabo de Hornos, and Tristan da Cunha; at last reported that Fur Seals were very rare and obtained only half a dozen pelts in several weeks.

        

1801-02 British sealing voyages (from London)

         Francis Todrig   Dragon

         Henry Barton     Sprightly

         Visited South Georgia.

1801-03 United States sealing voyage (from Nantucket)

         Jonathan Paddack Favorite

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1802 United States sealing voyage (from New York)

         Isaac Pendleton  Union

         Visited South Georgia and probably compiled a map of the island (published in 1906); searched unsuccessfully for Iles Crozet. [The provenance of the map is uncorroborated.]

        

1802-06 United States sealing voyage (from New Haven)

         John Davis       Huron

         Visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia; continued to Canton. Joel Root, supercargo, wrote an account of the voyage.

        

1808-09 British whaling and sealing voyage (from London)

         Thomas Hopper    Otter

         James Lindsay    Swan

         These Enderby Brothers’ vessels visited South Georgia; thence rediscovered Bouveto/ya (calling it Lindsay Island), 6 October 1808, but did not land. Swan, on returning to Britain passed Cabo de Hornos, reported Beauchêne Island and determined its latitude.

        

1813-14 British whaling and sealing voyage (from London)

         Capt. Coplin     South Georgia Packet

         Probably visited South Georgia.

        

1814-15 British whaling and sealing voyages (from London)

         Francis Todrig   Admiral Colpoys

         William Graham   Diana

         William Beacon   Recovery

         Visited South Georgia; called at Saint Helena during the return voyage.

        

1815-16 British whaling and sealing voyages (from London)

         Francis Todrig   Admiral Colpoys

         William Graham   Diana

         Visited South Georgia; called at Saint Helena during the return voyage.

        

1815-17 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Holden Barton    Norfolk

         Visited South Georgia; wintered at Royal Bay; secured 5000 Fur Seal pelts and 3500 barrels [58 x 103 l] of Elephant Seal oil; a shallop foundered in Cooper Bay and 2 men drowned. Thomas W. Smith, a sealer, wrote account of the voyage. [Smith made 2 later voyages, his chronology has been corrected to conform to shipping records.]

        

1816-18 British whaling and sealing voyage (from London)

         James Downey     Grand Sachem

         Visited Iles Kerguelen and South Georgia.

        

1817-18 British sealing voyage (from London)

         James Todrig     Admiral Colpoys

         Francis Todrig   King George

         Visited South Georgia; Admiral Colpoys wrecked there, 28 November, complement rescued aboard King George.

        

1817-18 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Holden Barton    Norfolk

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1817-20 United States sealing voyage (from Boston)

         Samuel B. Edes   Pickering

         Visited Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, Gough Island, Prince Edward Islands (where 3 men drowned while landing, a sealing gang was left for 2 years; reported a French wreck, pigs and ‘a plague of house mice’), Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen; William Dane Phelps wrote an account of the voyage.

        

1818-19 British sealing voyages (from London)

         G. Barclay       Arab

         Thomas Mowatt    Echo

         David Littlejohn Grand Sachem

         John Brown       Indispensible

         Peter Kemp       King George

         James Todrig     Mary Ann

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1818-19 British sealing voyage (from London)

         George Powell    Dove

         Visited South Georgia and Iles Kerguelen.

        

1818-20 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Thomas Duell     Anne

         J. Smith Norfolk

         Visited South Georgia. Duell, accompanied by a shallop, searched South Sandwich Islands unsuccessfully for Fur Seals; landed there and reported a volcanic eruption. The expedition took 10 000 Fur Seal pelts and 2400 barrels [400 x 103 l] of Elephant Seal oil. A shallop, Lovely Nancy (Mr Maclow), purchased on South Georgia, foundered in the Bay of Isles. Thomas W. Smith, a sealer, wrote an account of the voyage.

        

1819-20 British sealing voyages (from London)

         J. Allen Arab

         W. Spence        Echo

         John Brown       Indispensible

         James Todrig     Mary Ann

         Visited South Georgia; Brown and Todrig met Fabian Gottlieb Benjamin von Bellingshausen’s Russian expedition off the south-western end of the island, December 1819. Arab foundered during the return voyage.

        

1819-20 British sealing voyage (from London)

         William Beacon   Recovery

         Visited South Georgia and Iles Kerguelen.

        

1819-20 United States whaling and sealing voyage (from New Bedford)

         David Leslie     Gleaner

         Possibly visited South Georgia.

        

1819-20 United States sealing voyage (from Stonington)

         James P. Sheffield       Hersilia

         Searched for ‘Aurora Islands’, found Shag Rocks and possibly Black Rock. Visited Falkland Islands (where reported Espírito Santo 1819-20) and South Shetland Islands in January 1820 with Nathaniel Brown Palmer as second mate and William A. Fanning as supercargo, the first United States sealing vessel known to have visited this region; took 8868 Fur Seal pelts from headquarters on Rugged Island.

        

1819-21 Russian naval expedition (from Kronstadt)

         Fabian Gottlieb Benjamin von Bellingshausen (Commander, aboard Vostok)

         Ivan Ivanovich Zavadovskiy       Vostok

         Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev        Mirnyy

         Circumnavigated the Antarctic continent in high southern latitudes; extended James Cook’s survey of South Georgia (where met sealers) and South Sandwich Islands (landed on Zavodovski Island, 24 December 1819); sighted but did not recognize as land two coastal areas in Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst and Prinsesse Ragnhild Kyst of Antarctica (the earliest sighting was on 27 January 1820 at about 69∙35°S, 02∙23°W, 3 days before Edward Bransfield’s discovery of Trinity Peninsula, this was the first land seen south of the Antarctic Circle); visited Macquarie Island (met sealers; reported dogs, sheep, and cats present); discovered Peter I o/y, 20 January 1821, and Alexander Island, 27 January 1821; surveyed South Shetland Islands where met Nathaniel Brown Palmer (1820-21). [Bellings- hausen’s names have been variously rendered from German, Estonian, and old Russian; the form above corresponds to his baptismal record in Saaremaa, Estonia. The dates listed are converted to the Gregorian calendar, Bellingshausen used the Julian Calendar sea day forms.]

        

1820-21 British sealing voyage (from Liverpool)

         Joseph Kitchen   Anne

         Visited South Shetland Islands, moored in New Plymouth for the summer; continued to South Georgia.

        

1820-21 British sealing voyage (from London)

         William Smith    Norfolk

         Visited South Georgia. [This William Smith was not the one who discovered South Shetland Islands.]

1821-22 British sealing voyage (from Liverpool)

         Joseph Kitchen   Anne

         Visited South Shetland Islands; anchored in New Plymouth and took 1429 Fur Seal pelts; continued to South Georgia.

        

1821-22 British sealing voyage (from Leith)

         James Weddell    Jane

         Michael McLeod   Beaufoy

         Visited Falkland Islands, and South Shetland Islands (reported Bridgeman Island in eruption); McLeod rediscovered South Orkney Islands independently in December 1821, several days later than George Powell and Nathaniel Brown Palmer (1821-22); Weddell visited and named these islands in February 1822. Continued to South Georgia, where met King George (Robert Black), and returned visiting Tristan da Cunha. A dog was aboard Jane.

        

1821-22 British sealing voyage (from Liverpool)

         Robert Black     King George

         Visited South Shetland Islands and South Georgia. A shallop, Success, was built on the latter.

        

1821-22 British sealing voyage (from London)

         John Alexander   King George IV

         Visited South Shetland Islands; based at Clothier Harbour for the summer, where reported 7 other vessels and described a strike by lightning; continued to South Georgia.

        

1821-22 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Charles Pottinger        Tartar

         Visited South Georgia and South Shetland Islands. At Bahía de Todos los Santos (Brazil) on 15 April 1822 Pottinger deposed that 7 of his crew, with 12 others, took Tartar’s launch and proceeded to sea, presumably with piratical intent.

        

1822-23 United States sealing voyage (from New York)

         Robert Johnson   Henry

         Visited Falkland Islands; searched for ‘Aurora Islands’ [Shag Rocks].

        

1822-24 British sealing and exploratory expedition (from Leith)

         James Weddell    Jane

         Matthew Brisbane Beaufoy

         Roughly charted the southern coasts of South Orkney Islands, the work being accomplished by Brisbane; Weddell made an independent chart of South Shetland Islands and ‘George IV Sea’ (later Weddell Sea), into which he penetrated southwards to 74∙25°S, 34∙27°W, 20 February 1823 (described open water and abundant whales); reported a volcanic eruption on Bridgeman Island; visited South Georgia, Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, Islas Diego Ramírez, and Tristan da Cunha; searched unsuccessfully for ‘Aurora Islands’ [Shag Rocks].

        

1822-24 United States sealing voyage (from New York)

         Benjamin Morrell Wasp

         Visited Islas Diego Ramírez, Tierra del Fuego, and Falkland Islands, searched unsuccessfully for ‘Aurora Islands’ [Shag Rocks], visited South Georgia, Bouveto/ya (where the first recorded landing was made and 172 Fur Seal pelts taken, 8 December 1822), Iles Kerguelen, and South Sandwich Islands (reported burning volcanoes and birds of paradise). Claimed to have penetrated to latitude 70∙23°S in the Weddell Sea and to have investigated non-existent ‘New South Greenland’, at approximately 48°W between 62°S and 69°S.

        

1823 British sealing voyage (from Liverpool)

         Charles Bryant   King George

         J. Anderson      Success

         Visited Tristan da Cunha, where additional crew were recruited, and South Georgia; continued to Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul, where rescued Charles Medyett Goodridge and companions (pigs and mice reported there); thence both vessels continued to Hobart. [Success had a capacity of only 28 tons (7∙8 m3) and was built on South Georgia in 1821-22.]

        

1824-26 United States sealing voyage (from New York)

         William Turpin Thayer    Yankee

         Visited Falkland Islands, continued to Auckland Islands and Macquarie Island, met Elizabeth and Mary (William Worth) and Wellington (John Day, 1825) at former, took 2000 Fur Seal pelts; called at Port Jackson [Sydney], August 1825; continued to Talcahuano; visited Falkland Islands, Shag Rocks, and Gough Island (April 1826), during the return voyage.

1828-29 British sealing voyage (from London)

         Matthew Brisbane Hope

         Visited South Georgia, where wrecked, 23 April 1829; crew constructed a shallop and sailed to Montevideo, where reported to the British Consul, 20 May 1829.

        

1829-31 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         James Brown      Pacific

         Visited South Georgia, left a sealing gang for 8 months (Fur Seals reported as scarce); continued to the northern South Sandwich Islands, landed on Zavodovski Island for 10 days.

        

1830-33 British expedition (from London)

         John Biscoe      Tula

         George Avery     Lively

         These vessels, dispatched by Enderby Brothers, circumnavigated Antarctica; visited Falkland Islands, November 1830; searched unsuccessfully for ‘Aurora Islands’ [Shag Rocks]; visited South Sandwich Islands, December 1830; discovered Enderby Land on 24 February 1831 (an appearance of land confirmed 3 days later). Reached Hobart after severe problems with pack ice and scurvy which caused two deaths, both vessels wintered in Australia; visited Chatham Islands (reported presence of Moriori) and Bounty Islands (found a hut), November-December 1831, where seals had been almost exterminated; searched for non-existent ‘Nimrod Island’, continued to Queen Adelaide Island [Adelaide Island] on 15 February 1832, and the northern Biscoe Islands; discovered and annexed land for King William IV, 21 February 1832, calling it Graham Land (in reality a southern extension of Edward Bransfield’s ‘Trinity Land’ and ‘Palmer’s Land’ [Antarctic Peninsula]), named Mount William on Anvers Island; visited South Shetland Islands and Falkland Islands (met Exquisite [Adam Kellock] and United States schooner Transport [Capt. Bray]). Lively was wrecked at Falkland Islands, July 1832; complement transferred to Tula aboard Unicorn (Capt. Couzins) from Montevideo. [Magnus Smith commanded Lively at the beginning of the voyage.]

        

1838-39 United States sealing voyages (from New York)

         Joseph Parsons   Mary Jane

         Elijah Hallet    Medina

         Roland S. Hallet Ocollo

         Visited Falkland Islands, continued to South Georgia where Iohn Anderson (‘An honest man’), mate of Mary Jane, was buried at Prince Olav Harbour, 23 November 1838; Mary Jane took 600 Fur Seal pelts; Ocollo was sunk by ice off the island. Shag Rocks visited [‘Aurora Islands’] Brutus Burrows, supercargo aboard Medina, determined the position and made sketches of them.

        

1844-47 Joseph Dalton Hooker (Britain) published Flora Antarctica, which included descriptions of the plants of Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, Macquarie Island, Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, Isla de los Estados, Falkland Islands, South Georgia, Iles Kerguelen, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), and Cockburn Island, as well as other southern regions.

        

1846 British voyage (from London)

         James Carrick    Esther

         Visited South Georgia; buried the surgeon, W. H. Dyre, and 4 other men at King Edward Cove, July 1846. [These are the earliest graves in Grytviken cemetery.]

        

1855 British voyage

         ?      Ellerslie

         Passed and reported Shag Rocks, 2 April.

        

1856 British mercantile voyage (from Australia for Britain)

         Capt. Wyeth      Helen Baird

         Reported sighting the non-existent ‘Aurora Islands’, December [possibly saw Shag Rocks].

        

1857-58 United States whaling voyage (from Sag Harbor)

         Thomas Welcome Roys      William F. Safford

         Visited South Georgia; Roys unsuccessfully tried his new invention of ‘bomb lances’ to secure whales; the lances were ‘full of difficulties and errors’. [See also Svend Foyn, 1870.]

        

1865 British voyage (from New Zealand for London)

         C. Vaux  Epsom

         Passed and reported Shag Rocks, 2 April.

        

1869 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         Sydney O. Buddington     Odd Fellow

         Visited South Georgia; took 800 Fur Seal pelts.

1870-71 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         James F. Smith   Francis Allyn

         Visited South Georgia; buried Frank Cabriel (steward) at Ocean Harbour, 14 October 1870 (the first interment in this sealers’ and whalers’ cemetery). [The year of interment has incorrectly been recorded as 1820.]

        

1870-71 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         Robert H. Glass  Peru

         Visited South Georgia; took 400 Fur Seal pelts; T. K. Purdy left an inscribed pole at Doris Bay.

        

1870-71 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         Erasmus Darwin Rogers    Trinity

         Alfred Turner    Flying Fish

         Visited South Georgia; H. Brockloe, cooper of Trinity was buried at King Edward Cove, 10 January 1871; Rogers made geological collections.

        

1874 Transit of Venus, 9 December; many countries participated in the observation of this phenomenon; 4 (Britain, France, Germany, and United States) established 8 observatories on 4 peri- Antarctic islands (Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, Iles Kerguelen [3 stations and 2 subsidiary stations], and Ile Saint-Paul; see below) and several others had been planned. [The location of stations is critical and the data obtained permit accurate determination of the Astronomical Unit. Other Transits had been observed in 1631, 1639, 1761, and 1769 (James Cook, 1768-71); the Transit on 6 December 1882 was observed from South Georgia, Tierra del Fuego, and Punta Arenas (1882-83, q.v.); subsequent pairs of Transits were on 8 June 2004 and will be on 5 June 2012, then 10 December 2117 and 8 December 2125.]

        

1874-75 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         Joseph B. Neale (?)      Flying Fish

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1874-75 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         James Waterman Buddington        Franklin

         Visited South Shetland Islands, South Sandwich Islands, and South Georgia; met 5 other sealing vessels at the last, took 600 Fur Seal pelts there.

        

1874-75 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         John L. Williams Golden West

         Visited South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and Gough Island; took a total of 939 Fur Seal pelts.

        

1874-75 United States sealing voyage (from Stonington)

         William Henry Appleman   Thomas Hunt

         Visited South Georgia where left a sealing gang on Bird Island and met Flying Fish; continued to South Shetland Islands, gang visited Elephant Island, only one Fur Seal pelt was secured, owing to difficult ice conditions; crew man buried on Low Island.

        

1875-76 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         Joseph B. Neale  Flying Fish

         Visited South Georgia and Iles Kerguelen.

        

1875-76 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         John L. Williams Golden West

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and South Sandwich Islands.

        

1875-76 United States whaling and sealing voyages (from New London)

         James Waterman Buddington        Lizzie P. Simmons

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1876-77 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         Stanford Stoddard Miner  Florence

         Visited South Georgia (where met 4 other sealing vessels), South Sandwich Islands, and South Shetland Islands.

        

1876-77 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         John L. Williams Golden West

         James M. Holmes  Flying Fish

         Visited South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; Williams continued to Bouveto/ya, where landed, 15 January 1877, and took 500 Fur Seal pelts.

1876-77 United States sealing voyages (from New London)

         James Waterman Buddington        Lizzie P. Simmons

         Benjamin Nelson Rogers   Trinity

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1877-78 United States sealing voyages (from New London)

         William Dunbar   Flying Fish

         James M. Holmes  Golden West

         Benjamin Nelson Rogers   Trinity

         Visited South Georgia. Heinrich Wentzel Klutschak (Austria), a passenger aboard Flying Fish, wrote an account of the voyage and the island which included a map; described Shag Rocks. Trinity took 1500 barrels [180 x 103 l] of Elephant Seal oil. [Flying Fish foundered near Cabo de Hornos, 8 October 1878, during a subsequent voyage to South Georgia.]

        

1877-78 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         James Waterman Buddington        Franklin (?)

         Visited South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; met 6 other sealing vessels.

        

1878-79 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         Benjamin Nelson Rogers   Trinity

         Visited South Georgia; took 250 barrels [30 x 103 l] of Elephant Seal oil.

        

1880-81 United States sealing voyage (from Stonington)

         Walter Scott Cheseboro   Wanderer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, South Orkney Islands, and South Shetland Islands; wrecked at Falkland Islands during the return voyage, 16 October 1881, complement saved on Mary E. Simmons (Benjamin Nelson Rogers).

        

1880-82 United States whaling and sealing voyage (from New London)

         Erastus Church   Adelia Chase

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands (took 57 Fur Seal pelts), South Orkney Islands, and South Sandwich Islands; sighted Bouveto/ya but did not land, 1882. Church reported reaching 70°S off the Antarctic Peninsula.

        

1882-83 International Polar Year (first), 1 August 1882 to 31 August 1883; an undertaking initiated by Karl Weyprecht of the Austrian navy. Eleven countries established 14 scientific stations in polar regions for coordinated scientific observations. Two stations (each with an associated second order station) were established in southern regions: France, with both sites in Tierra del Fuego; and Germany, in South Georgia (primary station) and Falkland Islands (secondary station). Brazil also operated a station in Patagonia partly in association with the programme and 12 observatories were established in the Arctic. Fifty years later a second International Polar Year (1932-33, q.v.) was organized (without establishing any new southern stations), and, 25 years subsequently (1957-58, q.v.), the International Geophysical Year was a major event in Antarctic scientific research and exploration. A subsequent programme began in 2007, the International Polar Years 2007-09 (q.v.).

        

1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition

         Karl Wilhelm Otto Schrader

         Johannes Heinrich Pirner Moltke (1882)

         Ferdinand Krokisius      Marie (1883)

         Arrived at South Georgia aboard Moltke; established a scientific station at Royal Bay, August 1882; 11 men wintered, studied geophysics, meteorology, glaciology, biology, and other sciences, until September 1883. Observed the Transit of Venus, 6 December 1882; took earliest photographs of the island. Relieved from Marie at conclusion of the International Polar Year. Both vessels visited Falkland Islands. A secondary meteorological observatory was operated at Stanley, Falkland Islands by I. H. M. D. Seemann for the expedition. The botanist, Hermann Will, and medical officer, Karl von der Steinen, made extensive biological collections; the engineer and artist, Eugen Mosthaff, prepared local maps. Dog, sheep, cattle, goats, and geese introduced, vegetable gardens planted. [The Royal Bay hut was used by other expeditions, it remained until burnt about 1915.]

        

1882-83 United States sealing voyage (from New York)

         Stanford Stoddard Miner  Sarah W. Hunt

         Visited South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, and South Shetland Islands.

        

1882-84 United States sealing voyage (from Stonington)

         Andrew J. Eldred Thomas Hunt

         Probably visited South Shetland Islands and South Georgia.

1885-86 United States sealing voyage (from Stonington)

         Andrew J. Eldred Express

         Visited South Georgia; George Comer, the mate, collected birds; voyage secured only 2 Elephant Seals and 123 ‘Sea Leopards’ [these were probably Weddell Seals], which made 60 barrels [7 x 103 l] of oil.

        

1886-87 United States sealing voyage (from Stonington)

         Andrew J. Eldred Express

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1887-89 United States sealing voyage (from New London)

         Joseph Johnson Fuller    Francis Allyn

         Visited Gough Island (landed a sealing gang of 5 men), Iles Crozet (rescued some sealers), Iles Kerguelen, South Georgia (where only 3 Fur Seal pelts were secured), and Gough Island (to collect the gang). José Gomez died in a storm and was buried on Gough Island, October 1888; George Comer, second mate and one of the gang, made meteorological observations, collected birds and geological specimens, he also reported mice present.

        

1889-91 United States sealing voyage (from Stonington)

         John O. Spicer   Sarah W. Hunt

         Visited South Shetland Islands and South Georgia; on latter buried Joseph H. Montaro at King Edward Cove, 28 February 1891.

        

1891-92 United States sealing voyage (from Stonington)

         James Waterman Buddington        Sarah W. Hunt

         Visited South Shetland Islands (took 41 Fur Seal pelts) and South Sandwich Islands (took 400 pelts).

        

1892 British mercantile voyage (from Iquique for Hamburg)

         B. H. Hatfield   Gladys

         Claimed sighting the non-existent ‘Aurora Islands’, May; reported signs of human activity on them. [Possibly saw Shag Rocks, the 1892 winter had exceptionally severe ice conditions.]

        

1893-94 Norwegian sealing and whaling exploration (from Sandefjord)

         Carl Anton Larsen        Jason

         Morten Pedersen  Castor

         Carl Julius Evensen      Hertha

         Visited South Shetland Islands. Hertha sailed south between Biscoe Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula to 69∙17°S, sighted Adelaide Island, Hugo Island, and Alexander Island. Hertha and Castor sailed in company to meet Jason at South Georgia. Whale harpooned from Hertha, but lost, in Royal Bay, 20 April 1894. Larsen discovered King Oscar II Coast, Foyn Coast, and Robertson Island (reported a volcanic eruption at Seal Nunataks); penetrated Weddell Sea coast of the Antarctic Peninsula to 68∙17°S, and made first use of ski in Antarctica; visited South Orkney Islands and Falkland Islands. Vessels reunited at Jason Harbour, South Georgia. The expedition secured 13 223 seal pelts (presumably Crabeater Seals from near the Antarctic Peninsula) and 6600 barrels [1∙1 x 106 l] of seal oil. [Larsen wrote to the Royal Geographical Society, London, inquiring about leasing South Georgia as a site for a whaling station, February 1896.]

        

1894-95 Canadian sealing voyage (from Nova Scotia)

         Frederick W. Gilbert     Director

         Visited Falkland Islands, where took 610 Fur Seal pelts, and continued to British Columbia. [Several Canadian sealing vessels visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, and Patagonia for the next two decades (some also engaged in gold-panning). Towards the end of this period a few extended their operations to more distant peri-Antarctic islands]

        

1896 British naval voyage

         Henry Joseph Keane       HMS Barracouta

         Visited Falkland Islands, 28 September to 19 December, surveying, determined the position of Shag Rocks and reported Black Rock.

        

1900 South Georgia; ‘Mining and General Lease’ of the island offered by the Government of Falkland Islands and Dependencies; advertised in the Falkland Islands Gazette, 2 October, and elsewhere. Richard Lion, a British resident in Punta Arenas, applied for and was granted a pastoral lease in 1903 but it was not used until 1905 when South Georgia Exploration Company was founded (Ernest John Swinhoe and Consort, q.v.).

        

1901-02 Canadian sealing voyages (from Halifax, Nova Scotia)

         Reuben Balcom    Beatrice L. Corkum

         Frederick W. Gilbert     Edward Roy

These Nova Scotia sealing vessels and others operated in the region for about subsequent 10 summers.

        

1901-03 Swedish South Polar Expedition (from Göteborg)

         Nils Otto Gustaf Nordenskjöld

         Carl Anton Larsen        Antarctic

         Shore party of 6 men wintered on Snow Hill Island (1902 and 1903); proved Dumont d’Urville’s ‘Louis Philippe Land’ (now Trinity Peninsula) to be a part of the Antarctic Peninsula, and mapped unknown gap between Gerlache Strait and Orléans Strait; discovered and mapped Antarctic Sound and Prince Gustav Channel; dog sledged to 66∙05°S on the east side of the peninsula; Antarctic visited Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands, and South Georgia (called in Royal Bay and Maiviken, rediscovered and named Grytviken) during the 1902 winter while sealing. At the end of that winter the ship could not reach Snow Hill Island, 3 men landed at Hope Bay to proceed overland but they encountered open water and failed to reach the island, so were forced to winter at Hope Bay in 1903 with minimal supplies (leader Gunnar Andersson). Antarctic was beset and crushed in the pack ice of Erebus and Terror Gulf and foundered, 12 February 1903, complement (20 men and the cat) reached Paulet Island where wintered, Ole Christian Wennersgaard died, 7 June 1903. Three search expeditions dispatched in 1903 (Français [1903-05], Frithjof [1903-04], and Uruguay [1903]) and a fourth was ready (Scotia, [1902-04]); all 3 parties rescued by the Argentine naval vessel Uruguay (Julían Irízar), November 1903. The expedition conducted a comprehensive scientific programme including work in Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, and South Georgia. An artist, Frank Wilbert Stokes (United States), was aboard for the first summer. [The hut on Snow Hill Island and two ruined refuges are now protected as ‘historic sites’.]

        

1904 Compañia Argentina de Pesca formed by Carl Anton Larsen (Swedish South Polar Expedition, 1901-03, q.v.) in Buenos Aires to begin whaling from South Georgia, 29 February. Larsen returned to Norway where he organized the enterprise in Sandefjord. [On returning to South Georgia Larsen founded Grytviken whaling station, 16 November (1904, q.v.), the company ran the station until 1960 when it was sold to Albion Star (Falkland Islands). Within the next decade 5 other companies established whaling stations on South Georgia where the industry continued until 1965.]

        

1904 Norwegian and Argentine whaling enterprise (from Sandefjord)

         Carl Anton Larsen (Manager)

         Thorvald Christian Thorsen       Louise

         Lauritz Edward Larsen    Rolf (transport ship)

         with whale-catcher Fortuna

         C. A. Larsen, of the Compañia Argentina de Pesca, established the first Antarctic whaling station on South Georgia, at Grytviken, 16 November 1904. Erik Sörling, of the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, made biological observations and collections; Larsen and Sörling began taking meteorological observations, 17 January 1905, which were maintained by Erik Nordenhaag from August, the observations have subsequently been continuous. [Larsen was accompanied by most of his family and about 100 employees; this event was the beginning of the modern Antarctic whaling industry and permanent occupation of the island (the whaling station operated until 1965). Louise remained as a storage hulk until abandoned and eventually burnt in 1987. The sealers’ cemetery, near Grytviken, was adopted by the whalers.]

        

1905 British and Chilean pastoral enterprise (from Punta Arenas)

         Ernest John Swinhoe

         F. Schwarz       Consort

         The South Georgia Exploration Company (formed 20 March 1905), president Richard Lion, visited Falkland Islands where recruited shepherds and granted a general grazing and mining lease for two years for South Georgia, 24 July; continued to the island and remained for 3 months; attempted unsuccessfully to start a pastoral settlement (introduced sheep and horses) and sealing. Encountered Grytviken whaling station (1904, q.v.), visited Royal Bay station (1882-83, q.v.); reported circum- stances to the Governor in the Falkland Islands during the return voyage.

        

1905 Argentine voyage (from Buenos Aires)

         Alfredo P. Lamas Guardia Nacional

         On charter to the Compañia Argentina de Pesca, this naval vessel carried 1000 tonne of coal and other supplies to Grytviken whaling station, South Georgia; surveyed the cove for the company, June; vessel continued to Punta Arenas before returning to Buenos Aires.

        

1905-06 Canadian sealing voyages (from Nova Scotia)

         John Anderson    Baden Powell

         Edgar F. Robbins Beatrice L. Corkum

         Wentworth E. Baker       E. B. Marvin

         Reuben Balcom    Edith R. Balcom

         Charles Leblanc  Markland

Sandwich Islands, South Orkney Islands, and South Shetland Islands, latter secured 588 Fur Seal pelts.

        

1906 South Georgia; following an application made at the British Embassy, Buenos Aires, the Falkland Islands and Dependencies Government granted a lease of land and licence for the whaling station at Grytviken to the Compañia Argentina de Pesca of Buenos Aires in March (the first of a long series of leases and licences to preserve the whale stocks of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies; see also 1992). Under the terms of their lease, the company continued the routine meteorological observations, which had been started by Carl Anton Larsen and Erik Sörling, 17 January 1905. (The Oficina Meteorológica Argentina operated the observatory for the company from August 1907, after a station was built at King Edward Point; following amendment of the terms of the lease when renewed in 1948, the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey took it over, 1 January 1950.) Several lighthouses and other aids to navigation were subsequently erected on the island by the whaling companies. [The South Georgia Exploration Company had received the first South Georgia licence but was not commercially successful. The increase in whaling led the Government to enact an Ordinance, 3 of 1906 (the first to control whaling within the territorial waters of the Dependencies).]

        

1906 Norwegian whaling voyage (from To/nsberg)

         Christopher Castberg     Fridtjof Nansen

        with whale-catchers Sudero/ and Norro/na

         When proceeding to South Georgia, with a Falkland Islands and Dependencies Government whaling licence, this vessel was wrecked on Fridtjof Nansen Reef, 10 November; 9 men drowned and the rest rescued by accompanying whale-catchers. August Emil Alfred Szielasko, medical officer, made geo- graphic and ornithological studies.

        

1906 Norwegian fisheries expedition (from Grytviken)

         Ingvald Syvertsen        Lyn

         Dispatched by Carl Anton Larsen to investigate fisheries potential at South Georgia, wrecked near Moltke Harbour, 12 April. [Subsequently there have been several attempts to initiate a fishing enterprise based at South Georgia; all were unsuccessful except for local consumption. A pelagic fishing industry around the island began in the 1970s.]

        

1906 British naval voyage

         Michael Henry Hodges     HMS Sappho

         Investigated situation on South Georgia, February, following initiation of the whaling industry there. Charted the approaches to Grytviken and the northern part of the island; made botanical and geological collections; prepared a report on whaling, navigation, deployment of lighthouses and the island generally. Inspected Shag Rocks during return voyage to Montevideo.

        

1907 South Georgia; meteorological station established at King Edward Point by the Compañia Argentina de Pesca, August; Erik Nordenhaag (Sweden) continued as the first meteorologist. [Subsequently engagement of the meteorologist was sub-contracted to the Oficina Meteorológica Argentina for many years. The original building was demolished in 1974 by the British Antarctic Survey, but the observatory, in changed quarters, still functions; see also 1904-05, 1906, and 1950.]

        

1907 South Georgia; Joachim Petersen (Norway) was engaged by the Compañia Argentina de Pesca at Grytviken; he was commissioned, as a policeman, by the Falkland Islands and Dependencies Government prior to arriving on the island which he reached on 12 December.

        

1907-08 Canadian sealing voyage (from Lunenberg, Nova Scotia)

         Capt. Church     Stranger

         Visited South Georgia (carried cargo to Grytviken whaling station) and South Sandwich Islands.

        

1907-08 Norwegian whaling enterprise (from To/nsberg)

         So/ren Berntsen  Bucentaur with whale-catchers Carl and Mathilde

         To/nsbergs Hvalfangeri vessels visited Falkland Islands; company granted a whaling licence by the Government from 1 January 1908, for South Georgia, where a floating factory site was selected in Stromness Bay (Husvik Harbour). [A shore station operated there from 1910 to 1931, 1932-43, 1945 to 1957, and 1958 to 1960 thence abandoned; the hulk Camana (Thomas H. Hansen) was moored at the jetty (until sunk in 1911) and whale-catcher Karrakatta permanently slipped. A whalers’ cemetery was established near the station.]

        

1907-08 Norwegian whaling enterprise (from Sandefjord)

         Christopher Castberg     Fridtjof Nansen II

        with whale-catchers Herkules and Samson

         Sandefjord Hvalfangerselskab vessels visited Falkland Islands; company granted a whaling licence by the Government from 1 January 1908, for South Georgia, where a floating factory site was selected in Stromness Bay (Stromness Harbour). [A shore station operated there from 1912 to 1931; then it became a repair yard until closed in 1961. A whalers’ cemetery was established near the station.]

        

1907-09 Swedish Magellan Expedition

         Carl Johan Fredrik Skottsberg

         Visited Falkland Islands, Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego, travelling extensively by horse and making botanical and geological collections. In winter 1909 visited South Georgia aboard Cachalote and travelled round the island aboard Undine.

        

1908 Falkland Islands Dependencies; British Royal Letters Patent of 21 July consolidated earlier territorial claims, dating from 1775 onwards, as Dependencies of the Falkland Islands, and specified the territories included (‘∙∙∙ South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, and the Sandwich Islands, and the territory known as Graham’s Land, situated in the South Atlantic Ocean to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude, and lying between the 20th and 80th degrees of west longitude, ∙∙∙’). [Although, for administrative convenience, these territories were constituted Dependencies of the Falkland Islands, the British title to them is separate and in no way derived from the title to the Falkland Islands. Neither parts of South America nor the Falkland Islands were in- cluded in the territories specified, although the opposite has been argued on the basis that the geometric sector specified incorporated them. See also 1917, 1961, 1982, and 1985 for amendments to the territory. This was the earliest defined sovereign claim over Antarctica.]

        

1908 Norwegian whaling enterprise (from Sandefjord)

         Ingvald Bryde    Aviemore with whale-catchers Edda and Snorre

         Bryde and Dahl Hvalfangst Selskab deployed a floating whaling factory at Godthul, South Georgia, under licence from the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government. The site was used by a series of vessels from 1908 to 1917 and 1922 to 1929; a whalers’ cemetery was established.

        

1908 British whaling enterprise (from Leith)

         Henrik Nicolai Henriksen (Manager)

         A. Le Sauteur    Coronda with whale-catchers Semla and Swona

         Christian Salvesen and Company established a whaling station on New Island, Falkland Islands. This was enlarged and completed in 1909-10 and closed in 1917 when much of the station was transferred to South Georgia. [Total whale catch was 1734.]

        

1908 Norwegian expedition (from South Georgia)

         Carl Anton Larsen

         Ottar Jo/gensen  Undine

         Reconnaissance of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands in search of new anchorages for whaling vessels, November; met Daisy (Benjamin Dunham Cleveland, 1908-09, q.v.) in the Bay of Isles at former; concluded that whaling could not be based at latter because of absence of safe harbours and presence of volcanic activity. Larsen was almost asphyxiated by volcanic fumes on Zavodovski Island; he prepared maps of the islands.

        

1908-09 United States sealing voyage (from New Bedford)

         Benjamin Dunham Cleveland        Daisy

         Visited South Georgia, September 1908 to January 1909, met whale-catchers from Grytviken and Husvik; took 170 Fur Seal pelts and was probably the last fur sealer to visit the island (see also 1912- 13).

        

1909 British whaling reconnaissance (from New Island, Falkland Islands)

         Henrik Nicolai Henriksen Semla

         Christian Salvesen and Company made a reconnaissance voyage to South Georgia to select a site for a whaling station, March-April.

        

1909 British whaling enterprise (from Leith)

         Henrik Nicolai Henriksen (Manager)

         James Ridland    Starlight with whale-catchers Swona and Semla

         Christian Salvesen and Company established a whaling station at Leith Harbour, South Georgia, September, under a Falkland Islands Dependencies lease; the hulk of James W. Turpie was moored in the harbour, until sank in 1946. [The first site, later known as ‘Jericho’, was unsuitable thus the station was moved about 1 km south to avoid continual avalanches and occasional rockfalls (major ones occurred in 1913 and 1929, the latter killed 3 of the winter crew). Two whalers’ cemeteries were established near Leith (one for ‘Jericho’ and a later one for the new station site).]

        

1909 Norwegian whaling enterprise (from Larvik)

         Lauritz Edward Larsen    Ocean with whale-catchers Pelican and Penguin

         Hvalfangerselskab Ocean granted a lease to establish a whaling station at Ocean Harbour, South Georgia, by the Government of the Falkland Islands Dependencies, 1 January. [Station operated from 10 October; closed and redeployed to Stromness Harbour whaling station early in 1920; the hulk Bayard was moored there until stranded, June 1911; hut ‘Veslegard’ built in Cumberland Bay for a small boat service to Grytviken. The whalers adopted the former sealers’ cemetery.]

        

1909 Argentine expedition

         Alexander Lindsay [Britain] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Carlos S. Somoza Uruguay

         Naval vessel relieved meteorological station; Uruguay also visited South Georgia, February, where magnetic observations were made at the site of the former German observatory in Royal Bay (1882- 83, q.v.).

        

1909-14 South Georgia; James Innes Wilson appointed Stipendiary Magistrate, resident on the island, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, 20 November 1909. He arrived aboard Coronda (Thomas Sinclair), from Stanley, 30 November 1909 (position of Shag Rocks determined during the voyage). Opened the Post Office, 4 December (first dispatch made 23 December, aboard Coronda to Port Stanley); inspected all the whaling stations in December while travelling about the island aboard Undine; conducted a census, 31 December 1909 (South Georgia’s population was 720, 93% of whom were Scandinavian). Earliest trial held on 24 October 1910 concerning performance of contractual duties. An introduction of Upland Geese (Chloephaga picta) from Falkland Islands, he made in March 1911, survived until 1927 (a subsequent introduction, in 1952, was also unsuccessful). He held the post until 19 October 1914. [There has been a Magistrate, usually with a variety of assistant staff, on South Georgia continuously from this time; during leave periods and between appointments another government official (generally the Customs Officer) has deputised for him; see also 1982.]

        

1910 South Georgia; controlled sealing started by the Compañia Argentina de Pesca under Falkland Islands Dependencies regulations designed to conserve stocks of Elephant Seals. [The company had taken seals experimentally under previous regulations in 1909; the industry continued until 1964 and took 260 950 seals during this period.]

        

1910 South Georgia; the Falkland Islands Dependencies government received a request for a licence for an experimental sheep farming enterprise from H. Jennings (Falkland Islands) and Wictor Esbensen (Norway), 1 July; the enterprise did not proceed. [A subsequent request for a pastoral licence was received from H. P. Briggs (Argentina), 17 July 1914; he was advised it was impracticable.]

        

1910 Argentine expedition

         Olaf Paulsen [Norway] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         César Maranga     Uruguay

         Naval vessel relieved meteorological station; Uruguay also visited South Georgia; John Ellieson, second in command of station, died, 20 August.

        

1910-11 Canadian sealing voyages (from Nova Scotia)

         Sprott H. Balcom Agnes G. Donohoe

         Wentworth E. Baker       Isabel May

         Charles Leblanc  Village Belle

         Visited South Georgia; Agnes G. Donohoe and Village Belle also visited South Sandwich Islands.

        

1911 South Georgia; first introduction of Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) made by Carl Anton Larsen and Lauritz Edward Larsen at Ocean Harbour, November. [Subsequent introductions made in 1912 and 1925.]

        

1911 Argentine expedition

         Harald Wiström [Sweden] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Guillermo Llosa  Uruguay

         Naval vessel relieved meteorological station; Uruguay also visited South Georgia.

        

1911-12 South Georgia; during this summer a female Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) was reported landed and measured at Grytviken whaling station; its length was 107 Norwegian fot [33∙58 m]; the largest animal ever recorded.

        

1911-12 British and South African whaling enterprise (from Durban)

         Nils A. Andersen Restitution with whale-catchers T.W.I. and C.O.J.

         Southern Whaling and Sealing Company (Irvin and Johnson, South Africa and Britain) deployed a floating whaling factory at Prince Olav Harbour, South Georgia, under a Falkland Islands Dependencies Government licence. [A shore station was established in 1917 and the site used until 1931; the hulk Brutus was moored there. A whalers’ cemetery was established near the station.]

1911-12 German South Polar Expedition

         Wilhelm Filchner

         Richard Vahsel (1911-12), Wilhelm Lorenz (1912), and

         Alfred Kling (1912)    Deutschland

         Visited South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; at the former investigated the coasts aboard Undine, prepared charts and reopened the observatory at Royal Bay (1882-83, q.v.); one man lost at sea. Continued south to ‘Prinzregent Luitpold Land’ [Luitpold Coast] and charted part of the south coast of the Weddell Sea; discovered the Filchner Ice Shelf where an attempt to establish a station was unsuccessful (it was deployed on a calving iceberg). Deutschland, with 33 men aboard, was beset and drifted in pack ice for 9 months; a winter sledge journey proved non-existence of Robert Johnson’s ‘New South Greenland’, reported in 1821. Visited South Georgia a second time after getting free from the ice. Sledge dogs and Manchurian ponies carried for transport and ultimately left on South Georgia. [Vahsel died, 8 August 1912; succeeded by Lorentz to Grytviken and then Kling. The original plan was to cross Antarctica by the South Pole to the Ross Sea.]

        

1911-12 Norwegian whaling voyage

         Petter So/rlle   Powell

         Whale-catcher used to investigate anchorages in South Sandwich Islands and South Orkney Islands for Aktieselskabet Rethval of Oslo, whose floating factory Falkland (N. Christophersen) worked at Falkland Harbour, Powell Island, South Orkney Islands, for 6 weeks under a Falkland Islands Dependencies Government licence. [So/rlle took the first whale there in January 1912.]

        

1911-12 Norwegian whaling voyage (from South Georgia)

         Ole Jo/rgensen   Tulla (combined factory ship and whale-catcher)

         So/ren Andersen  Havfruen (transport vessel)

         Searched for suitable anchorages for floating whale factories at South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands; whaling based on the latter group was started under a Falkland Islands Dependencies Government licence in 1911. Continued to make the first experimental whaling expedition to South Sandwich Islands; Havfruen was sunk by ice, 3 December 1911, near 58∙35°S, 30∙12°W. Landing made at Ferguson Bay, Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands. [Tulla was an experimental vessel – which was not successful.]

        

1912 British mineralogical expedition

         David Ferguson

         Conducted a mineralogical and geological examination of South Georgia for Christian Salvesen and Company, January to April. Transport provided by whale-catchers.

        

1912 South Georgia; civil administrative station moved to King Edward Point from Grytviken; the Magistrate took up residence in September. [A typhus epidemic, from June to August 1912, caused 9 deaths at Grytviken.]

        

1912 Falkland Islands Dependencies; King Edward Cove (South Georgia) and Port Foster (Deception Island) declared ‘Ports of Entry’ from 1 October (Orders 127 and 149) by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government (the latter for whaling seasons only).

        

1912 Falkland Islands Government enacted the ‘Wild Animals and Birds (South Georgia) Ordinance’ (8 of 1912), 28 September. This protected the introduced reindeer and Upland Goose, and four indigenous bird species.

        

1912 Argentine expedition

         Sigurd Stranger [Norway] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Carl Anton Larsen        Undine

         Personnel arrived at South Georgia aboard Harpon from where a chartered vessel relieved the meteorological station.

        

1912-13 United States sealing and whaling voyage (from New Bedford)

         Benjamin Dunham Cleveland        Daisy

         Visited South Georgia; Robert Cushman Murphy made ornithological and other observations and collections for the American Museum of Natural History and Brooklyn Museum, New York, made a sketch map of the Bay of Isles and took numerous photographs. [This was the last old-style sealing voyage to the island; 1641 Elephant Seals and numerous penguins were taken.]

        

1913 South Georgia; Whalers’ Church constructed at Grytviken by Carl Anton Larsen and Den Norske Sjo/mannsmisjon; consecrated, 25 December. Kristen Lo/ken (Norway) was first pastor. [Ivar Welle, from the Sjo/mannsmisjon, had visited South Georgia in February 1910 at the invitation of Larsen to initiate the project; Lo/ken was at Grytviken from 1 April 1912 to 4 June 1914; subsequent Norwegian clerics were Frithjof Zwilgmeyer (theological student) 14 March 1914 to mid 1916, Jon Foen (virger) between 1916 and 1918, Frederik Knudsen (pastor) October 1925 to May 1926, Sverre Eika (pastor) September 1929 to April 1931, and Johan Schro/der Lunde (deacon) 1958 to 1961.]

        

1913 South Georgia; Solveig Gunbjörg Jacobsen born at Grytviken, 8 October, and registered by the Magistrate. [Subsequently there have been 12 more children born on the island.]

        

1913 Argentine expedition

         Harald Wiström [Sweden] and K. Stachlhandske [Sweden]

         (Officers-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Alfred Kling     Deutschland

         Vessel, chartered from the German South Polar Expedition (1911-12, q.v.), relieved meteorological station; Wiström died, 7 May, and Stachlhandske took command; Deutschland also visited South Georgia.

        

1913 Falkland Islands Government enacted the ‘Wild Animals and Birds Protection Ordinance’, 22 March, which was extended to the Falkland Islands Dependencies (amended in 1975). [This Act also repealed the ‘Wild Birds Preservation Ordinance’ of 15 June 1908 and ‘Wild Animals and Birds (South Georgia) Ordinance’ of 28 September 1912.]

        

1913-14 South Georgia; Major Gerald Edwin Hamilton Barrett-Hamilton and P. Stammwitz (Britain) visited Leith Harbour on behalf of the Colonial Office, to investigate state of the whaling industry and biology of whales; other biological collections were also made. [Barrett-Hamilton died on South Georgia, 17 January 1914.]

        

1913-14 South Georgia; José Gonçalves Correira (Portugal-United States), formerly mate of Daisy (1912-13, q.v.), collected bird skins at the island for the American Museum of Natural History. He was transported by the whaling fleet. [Correira probably continued his collecting during the 1914-15 summer also.]

        

1914 South Georgia; John Quayle Dickson, Colonial Secretary, Falkland Islands and Dependencies Governments, made a tour of inspection of the island, April.

        

1914 Argentine expedition

         R. Blüthgen [Germany] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Carl Anton Larsen        Undine

         Personnel arrived at South Georgia aboard Harpon from where a chartered vessel relieved the meteorological station.

        

1914-16 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition [Weddell Sea Party] (Britain)

         Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton

         Frank Arthur Worsley     Endurance

         Visited South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; discovered southern part of Caird Coast. Endurance, with a complement of 28 men, was beset, drifted 10 months during which the non- existence of Robert Johnson’s ‘New South Greenland’ was demonstrated; Endurance was crushed in pack ice of the Weddell Sea, abandoned 27 October and sunk on 21 November 1915, wrecking the plan to sledge across Antarctica; company drifted on the pack ice and later escaped in boats to Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, 14 April 1916, where wintered; Shackleton with 5 others sailed 1450 km to South Georgia in modified whale boat James Caird; he and 2 of them made the first major trek across the island to Stromness; 5 relief expeditions were organized in 1916, of which the fourth rescued the party of 22 men from Elephant Island, 30 August 1916, which was led by John Robert Francis [Frank] Wild after Shackleton’s departure. [Endurance was equipped with wireless telegraphy apparatus but it was insufficiently powerful to communicate with a coast station; dogs used for sledge hauling and a motor sledge carried; James Francis [Frank] Hurley made a ciné film and took colour photographs.]

        

1914-27 South Georgia; Edward Beveridge Binnie appointed Stipendiary Magistrate, resident at King Edward Point, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, 20 October 1914. He held the post until 1 April 1927.

        

1915-16 United States voyage (from and to Lyttelton)

         James Percy Ault Carnegie

         Circumnavigation of the Antarctic during the fifth of a series of voyages to conduct magnetic research; left New Zealand eastbound, searched at reported positions of ‘Nimrod Island’ and ‘Dougherty’s Island’, confirming their non-existence; visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia; attempted, unsuccessfully, to locate Bouveto/ya and land on Iles Kerguelen.

        

1916 Norwegian whaling voyages

         Oscar Karlsen    Fortuna

         [unmanned]       Montebello

         South Georgia; whale-catchers, foundered off Hope Point, Cumberland Bay, 14 May, and in Ocean Harbour, 4 August, respectively; losses investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1916 British whaling enterprise

         Otto Hilmar Poulsen      Horatio

         This floating factory, with a full cargo of whale oil aboard, burnt and sunk off Leith Harbour, South Georgia, 11 March; loss investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1916 Argentine mercantile voyage (from Buenos Aires)

         ?      Argos

         This steam-assisted sailing vessel departed for South Georgia, 9 May 1916, with a cargo of coal and empty barrels; and was never seen again. Some of the cargo was found at King Haakon Bay; 7 rough beds were found at Prince Olav Harbour whaling station when it was reopened late in 1916 and a corpse was later discovered near the station. The Uruguayan vessel Instituto de Pesca Nº I (Ruperto L. Elichiri-Behety) assisted in searches for Argos. [Some of Argos’s survivors may have landed on the south-west of South Georgia, reached Prince Olav Harbour and perished while trying to get to Stromness Bay at about the time Ernest Henry Shackleton was crossing the island (1914-16, q.v.).]

        

1916 British naval voyage

         John Derwent Allen       HMS Kent

         Visited Falkland Islands continued to South Georgia, 10 April, and Simon’s Town; made the first successful radio transmission from King Edward Cove (received at Stanley).

        

1916 Norwegian [first] relief expedition (from South Georgia)

         Ingvar O. Thom   Southern Sky

         Whale-catcher, with Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton aboard, attempted but failed to reach Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, May, to rescue Shackleton’s party left there, April 1916 (1914-16, q.v.); conveyed Shackleton to Falkland Islands.

        

1916 Argentine expedition

         Olaf Lützow-Holm [Norway] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         C. J. Rasmussen  Undine

         Chartered vessel, from South Georgia, relieved the meteorological station. Reported ‘Undine Rock’ at 58∙52°S, 41∙80°W; later found to be non-existent.

        

1917 South Georgia; James Francis [Frank] Hurley, photographer from Sir Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (Endurance, 1914-16 q.v.), returned to the island to secure additional ciné photographs of seals and birds for incorporation in his documentary film South (replacing some lost with Endurance), assisted by Christian Salvesen and Company whaling company which provided transport, March-April.

        

1917 Argentine expedition

         Anton Stuxberg [Sweden] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         C. J. Rasmussen  Undine

         Chartered vessel, from South Georgia, relieved meteorological station; whale-catcher Karl (O. J. Næss) also visited.

        

1919 Argentine expedition

         Hugo Valentiner [Denmark] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Jorge Games      Uruguay

         Naval vessel visited Falkland Islands; relieved meteorological station; return voyage visited South Georgia.

        

1919 South African prospecting expedition (from Cape Town)

         François Xavier Ziegler and J. G. Fenton (joint leaders)

         Capt. Goodwin    Woodville

         Visited Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island to prospect (unsuccessfully) for diamonds, 31 May to 3 October; huts built in The Glen on the latter island where one man died and was buried (cat and dog introduced); inscribed stone left at The Glen. [Woodville was on a voyage to and from South Georgia.]

        

1920 British naval voyage

         Herbert Willes Webley Hope       HMS Dartmouth

         Charted Cumberland Bay while ‘showing the flag’ at South Georgia, January; also charted Shag Rocks. Visited Tristan da Cunha.

1920-21 South Orkney Islands; William Barlas appointed the Falkland Islands Dependencies representative at these islands for the whaling season at the islands (he travelled aboard whale-catcher Herkules). [Subsequently Government representatives travelled with the whaling fleet to the islands every summer until 1930-31; generally a member of the staff of the Stipendiary Magistrate of South Georgia undertook this function.]

        

1920-21 Norwegian whaling enterprise (from South Georgia)

         Morten Fadum (Manager)

         Edmund Wang      Teie with whale-catchers Husvik and Herkules

         To/nsbergs Hvalfangeri established a shore whaling station at Borge Bay, Signy Island, South Orkney Islands under a Falkland Islands Dependencies Government licence; took first whale 7 February 1921. The site was also used by floating whaling factories from 1920-21 to 1929-30. The small shore station principally used skrotts from floating factories and ceased to operate from 1925-26 (it was not successful owing to the severity of the climate). Approximately 3500 whales were caught there from 1921 to 1929. The Argentine meteorological station of Laurie Island was occasionally relieved by whaling vessels during this period.

        

1921 British whaling voyage (from Prince Olav Harbour for Cape Town)

         Daniel Hansen    T.W.I.

         Whale-catcher foundered off South Georgia, 11 May, complement rescued; loss investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1921 British naval voyage

         Alister Francis Beal     HMS Weymouth

         Visited South Georgia.

        

1921-22 Shackleton-Rowett Antarctic Expedition (Britain)

         Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton and

         John Robert Francis [Frank] Wild       Quest

         Visited South Georgia, where Shackleton died, 5 January 1922. Wild took command and expedition continued to the Weddell Sea; visited South Sandwich Islands; confirmed non-existence of ‘New South Greenland’; attempts to discover new land in the Enderby Land region were unsuccessful; sighted Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands; returned to South Georgia, then visited Gough Island and Tristan da Cunha. A Post Office operated aboard Quest. [The expedition, with George Hubert Wilkins aboard, was prepared to rescue the Waterboat Point party but this proved unnecessary (British Expedition to Graham Land, 1920-22.]

        

1922 Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was buried in the Grytviken cemetery, South Georgia, after his body, which had been taken to Montevideo aboard Professor Gruvel, was returned to the island aboard Woodville (Capt. Least), 5 March. [Memorial stone unveiled in 1928, q.v.]

        

1922 South Georgia; Fur Foxes (Alopex lagropus) introduced at Grytviken whaling station, under a Falkland Islands Dependencies Government licence. They were fed on whale products and their pelts taken for the fur trade but, although breeding occurred, the experiment was unsuccessful. The foxes remained caged while present on the island.

        

1923 ‘Discovery Expeditions’; inaugurated by the British Colonial Office under the Government of the Falkland Islands Dependencies. [Work began on South Georgia in 1924-25 and the first voyage of Discovery was in 1925-26. Research continued until reorganization in 1949.]

        

1923 Argentine expedition

         Hugo Valentiner [Denmark] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Ricardo Vago     Guardia Nacional

         Naval vessel visited South Georgia whence Rosita (Karl A. Larsen), a whale-catcher, continued to relieve the meteorological station. Alberto Carcelles made biological collections for the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires. [After this voyage the Argentine Minister of Marine wrote to the Minister of Agriculture proposing that the station be closed for financial reasons, this was declined.]

        

1923-24 Pierre Idrac sent by the French Government to study the aerodynamics of soaring flight of albatrosses at sea; he worked aboard Guardia Nacional (Ricardo Vago, 1923) while visiting South Georgia, and from several whaling vessels from the island.

        

1924 Falkland Islands Ordinance, 6 of 24 December, established a Dependencies Research and Development Fund to ensure that revenues derived from whaling leases and licences, and other local taxes, be devoted to research in connexion with the whaling industry. Construction of Discovery House laboratories, King Edward Point, South Georgia, began in the 1924-25 summer.

1924 Falkland Islands Dependencies Government mail service (from Port Stanley)

         H. Nyegaad       Fleurus

         Voyage inaugurating the Government mail service contracted to To/nsbergs Hvalfangeri, providing communication between the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, and Uruguay. Fleurus began the service at South Georgia, December and sailed approximately 4 times annually, carrying mail, passengers, and cargo between Falkland Islands and South Georgia, with annual voyages to South Shetland Islands, and occasional ones to South Orkney Islands, and Montevideo, 1924-33; Fleurus was replaced by Lafonia in 1934 and a series of other vessels until the service was terminated when Darwin was withdrawn, 1971. [Subsequent mail service voyages to South Georgia are not all listed here except in special circumstances. Return ‘tourist’ tickets were advertised for some voyages.]

        

1924 Argentine expedition

         Vladimir Dobrovolski [Russia / Soviet Union] (Officer-in-charge;

         Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Gerónimo Costa Palma      Guardia Nacional

         Naval vessel visited South Georgia with cargo for Grytviken; arranged relief of meteorological station by whale-catcher Karl; collections made for the Museo de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires. Pampa (Benito Sueyro) also visited the station.

        

1925 Discovery Committee’s (Britain) marine biological laboratory at Grytviken, South Georgia, completed in January. [Work in this laboratory, started under Neil Alison Mackintosh, continued, with periodic changes of staff, during each whaling season until 1931.]

        

1925 South Georgia; Falkland Islands Dependencies Government wireless station opened at King Edward Point, 1 April, with Herbert Edward Prickett as operator.

        

1925 Norwegian whaling voyage (from Prince Olav Harbour for Cape Town)

         Ivar Storm Larsen        Swona II

         Whale-catcher foundered off South Georgia, 7 March, complement rescued; loss investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1925 Norwegian sealing voyage (from Grytviken)

         Gotfred Thorsen  Granat

         This sealer foundered in Ice Fjord, South Georgia, 29 September, complement rescued; loss invest- igated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1925 Argentine Government first formulated claims to South Orkney Islands; extended in 1927 to South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, and progressively in 1937, 1942, 1943, and 1947 to almost all of the territories in the Falkland Islands Dependencies (the eventual claims were to ‘Antártida Argentina’, the lands between 25°W and 74°W, south of 60°S, with South Georgia, Shag Rocks, and South Sandwich Islands [1947, q.v.]).

        

1925 Argentine expedition

         Ernst Bruhns [Germany] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Ramón A. Poch     1° de Mayo

         Naval vessel visited South Georgia and arranged relief of meteorological station by whale-catcher Don Ernesto (Hans T. Johannesen).

        

1925-26 Norwegian whaling voyage (from Larvik)

         Henrik Govenius Melsom (Manager)

         Hans P. Hansen   Lancing

        with whale-catchers Norro/na I, Globe I, Globe II, and Globe III

         Melsom installed the first hauling-up slipway (invented by Petter So/rlle) on this vessel, which inaugurated pelagic whaling factories in the Antarctic; Lancing visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Palmer Archipelago. [Her operations were ostensibly outside the 3 nautical mile (5∙6 km) territorial limits of the Falkland Islands Dependencies.]

        

1925-27 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         Stanley Wells Kemp

         Joseph Russell Stenhouse Discovery

         Preliminary oceanographic survey of South Georgia and South Shetland Islands whaling grounds; hydrographic surveys were made in these 2 groups in Palmer Archipelago and near Hugo Island; 6 lines of oceanographic soundings were run between Cape Town and the Scotia Sea, and another between South Shetland Islands and Cabo de Hornos; searched for non-existent ‘Thompson Island’ and sighted Bouveto/ya; visited Tristan da Cunha and South Orkney Islands. Discovered the existence of the Antarctic Convergence (see also Meteor, 1925-27). Reported the sea covered with enormous tabular icebergs off Clarence Island, one extended across the whole horizon, February 1927.

1925-27 German Atlantic Expedition

         Alfred Merz (1925) and

         Friedrich A. Spieβ (1925-27)      Meteor

         Oceanographic voyage including hydrographic observations at South Georgia (visited the station remains at Moltke Harbour), South Shetland Islands (visited Deception Island whaling station, South Sandwich Trench, and Gough Island; visited Bouveto/ya; determined the composition and movements of distinct water masses originating in the Southern Ocean and discovered the existence of the Antarctic Convergence (see also Discovery, 1925-27). [Merz died at sea, 25 August 1925; Spieβ, in executive command of the ship, continued in sole command.]

        

1926 Argentine expedition

         Carl E. Berg [Sweden] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Hans T. Johannesen       Don Ernesto

         Meteorological station relieved by whale-catcher from South Georgia, where personnel arrived aboard Tijuca. Alférez Mackinlay (Ramón A. Poch) called, May, with biologist Alberto Carcelles aboard.

        

1926-27 Norwegian whaling voyage

         S. Sjeldche (Manager)

         Hans P. Hansen   Lancing

         Visited South Georgia and South Orkney Islands. Alberto Carcelles made further biological collections for the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires.

        

1926-27 Norwegian whaling expedition

         Eyvind Tofte

         Anton S. Anderssen       Odd I

         Whale-catcher made a reconnaissance in the Bellingshausen Sea; visited, photographed, and charted Peter I o/y but was unable to land; visited South Georgia, South Shetland Islands and Palmer Archipelago; reported an iceberg estimated as 180 km2 off Clarence Island, 7 January. [This was the first of Lars Christensen’s series of expeditions from 1926 to 1937.]

        

1926-27 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         Alister Clavering Hardy, Neil Alison Mackintosh, James Erik Hamilton, and

         David Dilwyn John (Chief Scientists for successive voyages)

         George Metcalf Mercer    RSS William Scoresby (1st commission)

         Whale marking and oceanographic voyage off South Georgia; trawling survey off Falkland Islands. Visited Gough Island, 7 to 8 June 1927.

        

1927 South Georgia; Frederick Black Alison appointed Magistrate, resident at King Edward Point, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, 22 August (he held the post until 24 November 1927, when he was elected to the Falkland Islands Legislative Council).

        

1927 Icebergs reported from 4 vessels: Lancing at 180 km north-east of South Orkney Islands claimed to be as large as South Georgia, February; from Orita and Winterhunde many bergs were sighted, one 18 km long, between Falkland Islands and Río de la Plata, October; reports from Tijuca described bergs all the way from South Georgia to Río de la Plata, one estimated to be 93 km long, December.

        

1927 Argentine expedition

         José Manuel Moneta (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Gotfred Thorsen  Tijuca

         Tijuca reached South Georgia, arranged relief of meteorological station, by the floating factory Orwell [II] and a whale-catcher. Wireless contact established between the station and Ushuaia, 30 March, by Emilio Baldoni. Cats and dogs introduced.

        

1927 Falkland Islands Dependencies Government mail service (from Port Stanley)

         C. Adamsen       Fleurus

         Carried the Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson, on an inspection of South Georgia, 6 to 13 August.

        

1927 Norwegian whaling voyage (from South Georgia)

         Hans Olaf Hansen Busen VII

         To/nsbergs Hvalfangeri sent this whale-catcher to make another search for a site for a shore station in South Sandwich Islands.

        

1927-28 Norwegian (Christensen) Antarctic expedition

         Haakon Mosby

         Harald Horntvedt Norvegia (1st voyage)

         The first of a series of voyages promoted by Lars Christensen; spent a month sealing (took 800 Fur Seal pelts), making scientific observations and surveying on Bouveto/ya, which was claimed for Kong Haakon VII of Norway, 1 December 1927; oceanographic observations conducted in waters around the island; plan to establish a meteorological station there was abandoned owing to unfavourable conditions, but a depot hut, ‘Villa Haaplo/s’, was built on Larso/ya. Visited South Georgia for repairs; from where Olaf Holtedahl and Ola Olstad visited South Shetland Islands and Palmer Archipelago, aboard vessels belonging to the Norwegian whaling fleet, to make geological and zoological observations.

        

1927-28 Norwegian whaling voyage

         Gullik Jensen (Manager)

         ?      Anglo-Norse

         James Erik Hamilton, of Discovery Expeditions, accompanied this expedition to South Sandwich Islands area as the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government representative; conducted marine biological work; no landing was made. [The whaling fleets also visited the region in 1928-29 and 1929-30.]

        

1927-30 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         David Dilwyn John, James William Slessor Marr, and George William Rayner

         (Chief Scientists for successive voyages)

         H. de G. Lamotte and Richard Laurence Vere Shannon

         (in executive command of the ship for different summers)

        RRS William Scoresby (2nd commission)

         Conducted oceanographic work between Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and South Shetland Islands; hydrographic charting in the last group from February to March 1929. During 1929-30 William Scoresby acted as a base ship for Sir George Hubert Wilkins’s air reconnaissance of north- west part of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Bellingshausen Sea. Sheltered in the lee of a giant iceberg, estimated to be 130 km long between Falkland Islands and South Georgia, February 1928.

        

1928 Argentine expedition

         Ernst Bruhns [Germany] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Gotfred Thorsen  Tijuca

         Tijuca reached South Georgia, arranged relief of meteorological station, by the floating factory Orwell [II] and a whale-catcher; radio operator died, 27 October.

        

1928 Falkland Islands Dependencies Government mail service (from Port Stanley)

         Lauritz Karlsen  Fleurus

         Official visit, February to March, of Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson, Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, to South Shetland Islands (called at the Deception Island whaling station), Palmer Archipelago, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia; at last unveiled the memorial stone over Sir Ernest Shackleton’s grave, 24 February, and inaugurated annual whalers’ sports meetings at Grytviken. [There were several subsequent voyages by Fleurus to South Shetland Islands. Whaling finished in these islands in 1931 and Fleurus was withdrawn from service in 1933.]

        

1928-29 German and Norwegian expedition

         Ludwig Kohl-Larsen

         Transported to South Georgia, with his wife, Margit, and a photographer, by whaling vessels; surveyed parts of the island, including inland glaciers, made biological collections and prepared ciné films; reported sealers’ graves at Elsehul and a wreck at Diaz Cove (presumably of a sealer).

        

1928-30 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         John Miller Chaplin      Alert

         Hydrographic survey of the harbours and anchorages of South Georgia conducted aboard a launch conveyed aboard whaling transport vessels.

        

1928-41 South Georgia; William Barlas appointed Magistrate, resident at King Edward Point, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, 27 September 1928. He held the post until 2 September 1941; when he died after being thrown into the sea by a snow-slide on the way to Grytviken.

        

1929 Falkland Islands Dependencies Government mail service (from Port Stanley)

         Lauritz Karlsen  Fleurus

         Visited South Georgia, August.

        

1929 Norwegian whaling voyage (from Prince Olav Harbour)

         Hans Kristoffersen       Southern Sky

         Whale-catcher foundered in a storm off Welcome Islands, South Georgia, 12 April, complement of 13 men drowned; loss investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1929-30 Alberto Carcelles (Argentina) made further biological collections on South Georgia for the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires, travelling aboard whaling vessels.

        

1929-31 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         Stanley Wells Kemp

         William Melvin Carey     RRS Discovery II (1st commission)

         Oceanographic work, mainly in the Falkland Islands Dependencies and especially at South Georgia whaling grounds, but observations extended to parts of the South Atlantic and Bellingshausen Sea; surveys made in South Sandwich Islands, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Hugo Island, South Georgia, and Bouveto/ya; confirmed non-existence of ‘Thompson Island’, ‘Undine Rock’, and ‘Strathfillan Rocks’; visited the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, Peter I o/y (did not land), and Darbel Bay. Reported an iceberg 130 km long between South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, February 1930.

        

1930 South Georgia; John Medlicott Ellis, Colonial Secretary of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies Governments, visited the island.

        

1930-32 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         Neil Alison Mackintosh and Eustace Rolfe Gunther

         (Chief Scientists on different voyages)

         John James Cawdell Irving and T. A. Jolliffe

         (in executive command of the ship on different voyages)

        RRS William Scoresby (3rd commission)

         Oceanographic and whale-marking voyage around South Georgia and the northern parts of the Weddell Sea; survey of Perú coastal current; trawling survey of Burdwood Bank. Reported an iceberg 83 km long 180 km north of South Georgia, May 1930. [The whale-marking programme begun by this voyage has been continued to the present.]

        

1931 Argentine expedition

         Ernst Bruhns [Germany] (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Johan A. Johanssen       Tijuca

         Tijuca reached South Georgia, arranged relief of meteorological station by a whale-catcher.

        

1931 Argentine expedition

         Erich Dautert

         Two German biologists from the Universidad y Museo de La Plata visited South Georgia aboard Tijuca (Johan A. Johannsen), early 1931, to study whaling, natural history, and make collections.

        

1931-32 Whaling and sealing industry; owing to over-production of whale and seal oil and the financial crisis of 1930-31, most of the world’s whaling fleets were laid up for this season (‘Det Stille Året’, the silent year in Norway). While 47 factories with 232 whale-catchers took part in the 1930- 31 Antarctic summer (and produced the largest amount of whale oil ever recorded), only 7 factories with 45 whale-catchers took part in 1931-32. The shore stations on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), Husvik, Stromness, and Prince Olav Harbour (South Georgia), and Port-Jeanne d’Arc (Iles Kerguelen) closed; Husvik alone reopened (in 1945-46). [Of the other 2 South Georgia stations, Leith closed for 1932-33 only and Grytviken operated continuously.] Whaling companies made the first quota arrangements to reduce oil production.

        

1931-33 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         David Dilwyn John

         William Melvin Carey     RRS Discovery II (2nd commission)

         Oceanographic work; a series of long V- and W-shaped lines of observations between the pack ice and ports in Falkland Islands, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand; the fourth circumnavigation of Antarctica and the first during winter; many lines of closely grouped observations in the waters of the Falkland Islands Dependencies, including the north-eastern part of the Weddell Sea; visited South Georgia (reported Fur Seals on Bird Island), South Shetland Islands, and South Orkney Islands (called at Laurie Island and Argentine meteorological observatory, landed on Inaccessible Islands), making surveys of the last group. Determined position of Bishop and Clerk Islands, off Macquarie Island. Data contributed for the International Polar Year programmes (1932-33, q.v.). [Carey was washed overboard in the Bay of Biscay during the return voyage.]

        

1932 South Georgia; first marriage in Antarctic regions; Alfred George Nelson Jones and Vera May Riches were married by William Barlas, the Falkland Islands Dependencies Stipendiary Magistrate at King Edward Point, 24 February; a child, Iorwerth Nelson Arnold Jones, was born on 24 January 1934 (registered as number 9 in the Falkland Islands Dependencies). [A total of 4 marriages have been solemnized at South Georgia until 1990. subsequently they became more frequent.]

        

1932 British naval voyage

         Basil G. Washington      HMS Durban

         Visited South Georgia and Falkland Islands, November.

1932 Falkland Islands Dependencies Government mail service (from Port Stanley)

         Fredrik Aas and Emanuel Edvardsen        Fleurus

         Made two visits to South Georgia.

        

1932 Norwegian whaling voyage

         Konrad Grano/e   Saragossa

         Factory ship caught fire at 62∙33°S, 55∙78°W, on the Southern Ocean; abandoned, 17 March; cargo of 5321 ton [6 x 106 l] of whale oil aboard; complement were rescued by whale-catchers and taken to South Georgia; loss investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1932-33 Second International Polar Year, fifty years after the First International Polar Year; it operated no stations in Antarctic regions, although some had been planned, but data were contributed by the meteorological observatories on South Georgia and South Orkney Islands, the Discovery Expeditions (Discovery II 1931-33, q.v.), and 10 vessels of the Norwegian whaling fleet (Hektoria [Fredrich Gjertsen], Kosmos [Hans Anderson], Kosmos II [Lars Andersen], Ole Wegger [David Andersen], Sir James Clark Ross [Oscar Nielsen], Skytteren [Hans Jespersen], Solglimt [Albin Andersen], Svend Foyn [Gullik Jensen], Thorshammer [Hjalmar Bråvold], and Vestfold [Sverre Skedsmo]), and whaling factory Tafelberg [Kapt. Berg] from South Africa.

        

1933 Falkland Islands Dependencies Government mail service (from Port Stanley)

         Emanuel Edvardsen        Fleurus

         Made visits to South Georgia. [This was the last year of visits by Fleurus but several other vessels continued the service.]

        

1933-35 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         Neil Alison Mackintosh

         Andrew Laidlaw Nelson    RRS Discovery II (3rd commission)

         Lines of oceanographic observations repeated at intervals in the meridian of 80°W and in the Scotia Sea for the study of seasonal variations; several long voyages through the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean, examining whale populations and their environment; visited Prince Edward Islands (did not land), South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, and South Shetland Islands, making surveys in the last group. Medical officer conveyed to Bear of Oakland in the Ross Sea, February 1934.

        

1934 Norwegian whaling voyage (from Leith)

         Otto Larsen      Shoma

         Whale-catcher was abandoned during a storm off South Georgia, she was found empty and low in the water at Rookery Bay, 7 February, all 12 men aboard lost (presumably took to the boats but drowned in the surf); loss investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1934-37 British Graham Land Expedition

         John Riddoch Rymill

         Robert Edward Dudley Ryder       Penola

         Visited Deception Island, wintered on Winter Island, Argentine Islands, (1935, 9 men ashore and 7 aboard Penola) and Barry Island, Debenham Islands, (1936, 9 men); during dog sledge journeys and flights the coast and off-lying islands of the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula were surveyed from Palmer Archipelago to southern Alexander Island. Sledging parties discovered and penetrated southwards along King George VI Sound to 72°S, and eastwards across the Antarctic Peninsula, proving the channels reported by George Hubert Wilkins in 1928-29 to be non-existent. Penola spent the 1936 winter at Falkland Islands and South Georgia, where Brian Birley Roberts made ornithological investigations. Extensive scientific programme undertaken including: meteorology, tides, geology, glaciology, and biology.

        

1935 South Sandwich Islands; volcanic eruption reported on Bristol Island, 31 December, by Christian Salvesen and Company floating whaling factory Sourabaya.

        

1935-37 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         George Edward Raven Deacon

         Leonard Charles Hill     RRS Discovery II (4th commission)

         Oceanographic circumnavigation of Antarctica during summer planned, but ship diverted to the Bay of Whales in the Ross Sea to search for Lincoln Ellsworth and Herbert Hollick-Kenyon (1935-36); revised programme included observations in the Ross Sea, lines of observations across the Indian and Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean, and more concentrated work in the waters of the Falkland Islands Dependencies; visited Balleny Islands, South Georgia, and South Orkney Islands (including Signy Island and Laurie Island); continued survey of South Shetland Islands where a boat, Rapid, was lost and a survey party stranded on King George Island, January 1937.

1936 British whaling voyage (from Leith)

         [unmanned]     Septa

         This former whale-catcher sank off Leith Harbour, South Georgia.

        

1937 British naval voyage

         Colin Sinclair Thomson   HMS Ajax

         Visited South Georgia with Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Sir Herbert Henniker-Heaton) aboard, January; assisted in search for missing boat crew from RRS Discovery II at King George Island, South Shetland Islands, during return voyage.

        

1937-38 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         George William Rayner

         Ronald Clifford Freaker  RRS William Scoresby (7th commission)

         Whale-marking voyage in the Scotia Sea and Bellingshausen Sea, covering an expanse of ocean between Bouveto/ya and Peter I o/y; landed on Saunders Island, South Sandwich Islands.

        

1938 British naval voyage

         Henry Harwood Harwood    HMS Exeter

         Visited South Georgia; used 2 Walrus aircraft to conduct surveys. The Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, Sir Herbert Henniker-Heaton, was aboard.

        

1941 British naval operation

         Geoffrey A. B. Hawkins   HMS Queen of Bermuda

         Operated off South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and in the Weddell Sea to protect Argentine, British, and Norwegian whaling fleets, January-March; destroyed oil fuel installations and coal stocks on Deception Island to deny their use to German raiders, 5 March. Batteries, with 4 inch (100 mm) guns, established on South Georgia at Hope Point (later moved to Horse Head) and above Leith Harbour (later moved to Hansen Point) principally manned by volunteers of the Norwegian Defence Forces recruited from whaling station employees (later in- corporated as part of the Falkland Islands Defence Force).

        

1942 Argentine expedition

         Alfonso Chakí (Officer-in-charge; Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands)

         Hans Olsen       Dias

         Meteorological station relieved by sealer from South Georgia by way of Ushuaia.

        

1942-51 South Georgia; Arthur Isidore Fleuret appointed Magistrate, resident at King Edward Point, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government. He held the post until 15 March 1951.

        

1943-44 British naval expedition (‘Operation Tabarin’ [I])

         James William Slessor Marr (Port Lockroy; in command of all shore staff)

         William Robert Flett (Deception Island)

         (Leaders for summer and 1944 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Keith Allan John Pitt    Fitzroy

         Victor Aloysius John Baptist Marchesi    HMS William Scoresby

         Permanent meteorological stations established at Port Lockroy (‘Base A’, open 11 February 1944, 9 men wintered, pig introduced) and Deception Island (‘Base B’, 3 February 1944, 5 men wintered); Argentine emblems at these 2 places and at Melchior Islands removed; ships attempted, without success, to establish occupation party at Hope Bay; found no suitable site for base on Antarctic Peninsula coast between Antarctic Sound and Andvord Bay; visited South Orkney Islands and South Georgia; William Scoresby visited Cape Renard where the British flag was hoisted and a record of the ship’s visit left. During the winter 1944, scientific programmes initiated included geology, biology, and survey. [This was the first of a series of British expeditions by the Royal Navy, Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, and British Antarctic Survey. The hut at ‘Base A’ is now protected as a ‘historic site’.]

        

1944 Falkland Islands Dependencies Government issued postage stamps for four of the Dependencies (Graham Land, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, and South Orkney Islands), December. Subsequently a series of stamps for the Dependencies and, later, British Antarctic Territory, South Georgia, and South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands have been issued. [Protests were received from Argentina and Chile.]

        

1945-46 Antarctic whaling industry; during this summer 3 shore stations (Grytviken, Husvik, and Leith) and 9 factory ships (Antarctic, Empire Venture, Empire Victory, Norhval, Pelagos, Sir James Clark Ross, Southern Venturer, Sudero/y, and Thorshammer) operated with 93 whale-catchers, and associated transport vessels. These took 13 387 whales. [After the Second World War pelagic whaling was resumed by a few companies on the Southern Ocean and 2 shore stations reopened, both on South Georgia, which thus had the only Antarctic shore stations).]

        

1946 South Georgia; Carl Alexander Gibson-Hill (Britain) visited the island to make ornithological observations, January to March; transported by Christian Salvesen and Company.

        

1946-47 British expedition

         Arthur Niall Rankin      Albatross (launch)

         Private expedition visited South Georgia to study ornithology and photograph wild life, reached remote parts of the island. Launch transported to and from the island by whaling company vessels.

        

1946-47 Netherlands whaling voyage

         Klaas Visser     Willem Barendsz.

         First Netherlands Antarctic whaling operation; operated in area between Bouveto/ya and South Sandwich Islands. Five zoologists, including Everhard Johannes Slijper, accompanied voyage for research on whales and birds.

        

1947-48 British naval voyage

         John Graham Forbes       HMS Snipe

         Barrington Lungley Moore HMS Nigeria

         Snipe, with Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford) aboard, visited South Georgia and British stations in South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula. Snipe and Nigeria later visited British and other stations in South Shetland Islands and Palmer Archipelago; the Governor joined Nigeria for this voyage.

        

1948 Soviet Union whaling voyage; a child was born to Aleksandra Akimovna Leonova, a waitress aboard the factory ship Slava (Aleksey Nikolayevich Solyanik) from Odessa, on the Southern Ocean, at approximately 61°S, 14°E, on a traverse towards South Sandwich Islands, 6 January; he was named Antarktyk Yemil’yanovich Keshelava.

        

1948 Argentine Government Decree, 17 040 of 9 June, established in the Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Cultos, the ‘División Antártida y Malvinas’ to handle matters related to the Falkland Islands, with South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, and other Antarctic regions.

        

1948-49 British naval voyage

         John Valentine Waterhouse        HMS Sparrow

         Charles Leslie Firth     HMS Glasgow

         Sparrow visited British and other stations in South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Palmer Archipelago; Glasgow also visited King George Island and South Georgia.

        

1948-49 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         Vivian Ernest Fuchs (Stonington Island)

         Gordon Derek Stock (Deception Island)

         Timothy Michael Nicholl (Argentine Islands)

         Richard Maitland Laws (Signy Island)

         Geoffrey Francis Hattersley-Smith (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         (Leaders for summer and 1949 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Henry Kirkwood   John Biscoe

         Hope Bay and Port Lockroy stations evacuated; relief of Stonington Island station prevented by ice conditions (5 men thus spent a third consecutive year in Antarctica); 4 other existing stations relieved; South Georgia visited. The Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford) accompanied voyage. Admiralty hydrographic unit resurveyed Deception Island (including Port Foster and approaches) and made sounding runs around South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands. During the 1949 winter ground surveys of Marguerite Bay and northern George VI Sound continued from Stonington Island, and geological party reached Eklund Islands in southern George VI Sound. Biological work continued on Signy Island and Stonington Island. [The Governor took charge of the Survey from October 1948.]

        

1949 British naval voyage

         Charles Leslie Firth     HMS Glasgow

         Visited and conducted surveys at South Georgia; Governor (Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford) and Robert Staveley Boumphrey, a Colonial Service Auditor, were aboard.

        

1949-50 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         James Harvey Chaplin (Port Lockroy)

         John Robert Green (Deception Island)

         Henry George Heywood (Argentine Islands)

         William Joseph Lambart Sladen (Signy Island)

         John Arthur Kendall (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         (Leaders for summer and 1950 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         Henry Kirkwood   John Biscoe

         New station established at King Edward Point, South Georgia, (‘Base M’), took over meteorological observations from Compañia Argentina de Pesca, 1 January 1950; forecasts issued, chiefly for the whaling fleet. (Arthur Isidore Fleuret, the Magistrate, was in charge of the government station.) With help of Norseman and Auster aircraft, Stonington Island was evacuated; Port Lockroy station reoccupied; 4 existing stations relieved; Governor, Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford, inspected the British stations. During the 1950 winter scientific programmes concentrated on routine meteorological observations and meteorology; medical, bacteriological, and ornithological research also conducted on Signy Island.

        

1949-50 Soviet Union whaling voyage

         Aleksey Nikolayevich Solyanik    Slava 15

         Whale-catcher used to make observations and sketches of South Sandwich Islands; also visited Gough Island.

        

1950 Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service established as an integral part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, with headquarters at Stanley, Falkland Islands, to provide forecasting services for the whaling fleets, local forecasts in the Falkland Islands, and collective broadcasts (FICOLS) for interception in other parts of the Southern Hemisphere. The meteorological station at King Edward Point, South Georgia, was transferred to the Service, 1 January, from the Compañia Argentina de Pesca; Daniel Borland became senior meteorologist. (The requirement to maintain the meteorological station had been deleted from the whaling company’s lease in 1948.) First regular forecasts issued to local whaling stations; extended to cover pelagic whaling area between 00° and 60°W, between 50°S and 65°S. [Annual reports and tables published for years 1950-62; name altered to British Antarctic Territory Meteorological Service, with annual reports 1963-70.]

        

1950 British Directorate of Colonial Surveys published 1 : 500 000 map of South Georgia (DCS 701), which brought together all existing topographic information. [For DOS 610 see 1958.]

        

1950 Argentine whaling voyage (from Buenos Aires)

         Augustin Ferro   Ernesto Tornquist

         This transport ship foundered in a storm at South Georgia, 16 October, at a site later called Tornquist Bay; all the complement of 260 were rescued; loss investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1950 British naval voyage

         James Francis Reginald Crewes    HMS Veryan Bay

         Visited South Georgia with the Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford) aboard, May.

        

1950-51 Discovery Expeditions (Britain)

         Henry Franceys Porter Herdman

         John Fulford Blackburn   RRS Discovery II (6th commission)

         Oceanographic work organized by the National Institute of Oceanography to fill gaps in earlier Discovery Expeditions: lines of stations worked in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean in winter and summer, in the Pacific sector in winter and spring, in the Atlantic sector in winter, and in the central Indian Ocean in winter and spring. The ship’s route included the second winter circum- polar voyage so far achieved, and visits to Macquarie Island, South Sandwich Islands, Iles Kerguelen and Heard Island.

        

1950-51 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         Ralph Anthony Lenton (Deception Island)

         John Robert Green (Argentine Islands)

         Joseph John Cheal (Signy Island)

         Kenneth Reginald Gooden (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         Richard Maitland Laws (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Leaders for summer and 1951 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government

         [except on South Georgia where a Magistrate already resided])

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston John Biscoe

         Port Lockroy station evacuated for the winter; remaining 5 stations relieved; Danco Coast examined; South Georgia whaling stations visited. Admiralty hydrographic unit began taut-wire survey of Bransfield Strait. Routine ionospheric observations began on Deception Island, August 1951. Elephant Seals and sealing industry studied on South Georgia, results led to greatly improved management of the industry.

        

1951 Norwegian sealing voyage (from Grytviken)

         Thorleif Hammerstad      Don Samuel

         This sealer foundered off Queen Maud Bay, South Georgia, 11 November; complement got ashore and were later rescued; loss investigated by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate.

        

1951-52 South Georgia; Steinar Olsen (Norway), an ichthyologist based at Husvik whaling station, made an investigation of the potential for commercial fisheries at the island aboard Busen 6. Two fishing vessels were dispatched there for the 1952-53 summer but the venture was not commercially successful.

        

1951-52 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         George Walter Marsh (Hope Bay)

         Ralph Anthony Lenton (Port Lockroy)

         Edward Dacre Stroud (Deception Island)

         Norman Stanley Wilson Petts (Argentine Islands)

         Arthur Walter Mansfield (Signy Island)

         William John Meehan (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         (Leaders for summer and 1952 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston John Biscoe

         Port Lockroy station reopened, December 1951; Hope Bay station re-established in February 1952 after delay caused by armed resistance of Argentine party (landed from Bahía Buen Suceso, commanded by Emilio L. Díaz) ashore to British landings; other stations relieved; South Georgia whaling stations visited. Admiralty hydrographic unit, under David Neil Penfold, surveyed Port Lockroy, Palmer Archipelago, and King Edward Cove (South Georgia); second unit, under F. W. Hunt, continued the survey of Hope Bay, parts of South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands, and around South Georgia, also continued taut-wire measurements in Bransfield Strait to connect the South Shetland Islands survey with the mainland. Ionospheric work transferred to Port Lockroy. During the 1952 winter Weddell Seals studied at Signy Island; Hope Bay survey programme included journeys to James Ross Island and Seal Nunataks. [Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service assumed responsibility for the King Edward Point observatory from the Survey, January 1952.]

        

1951-52 South Georgia Survey [I] (Britain)

         Verner Duncan Carse

         First summer; topographic and geological survey of the island initiated. Transport was provided by the whaling fleets. [This was the earliest of 4 expeditions which comprehensively surveyed South Georgia.]

        

1951-54 South Georgia; Kenelm Somerset Pierce Butler appointed Magistrate, resident at King Edward Point, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, 15 March 1951. He held the post until 19 April 1954.

        

1952 Argentine naval voyage

         Carlos A. Viñuales        Hércules

         Domingo G. Luis  Sarandí

         Visited South Sandwich Islands; landed on Saunders Island and Vindication Island, February.

        

1952 British naval voyage

         John Augustine Ievers    HMS Burghead Bay

         Richard Horncastle       HMS Veryan Bay

         Burghead Bay, with Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford) aboard, investigated armed resistance by Argentines at Hope Bay to Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey landing (1951-52); inspected all of the Survey’s stations except Port Lockroy. Admiralty hydrographic unit continued taut-wire survey of Bransfield Strait and charted Admiralty Bay and seaward coasts of Deception Island. Veryan Bay, with the Governor aboard, visited South Georgia.

        

1952-53 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         George Walter Marsh (Hope Bay)

         Walter Stephen Peter Ward (Port Lockroy)

         Ian William Noel Clarke (Deception Island)

         David Alfred Barratt (Argentine Islands)

         Alan George Tritton (Signy Island)

         Ronald Francis Worswick (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         (Leaders for summer and 1953 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston John Biscoe

         Six existing stations relieved; on Argentine Islands, site prepared on Galindez Island for construct- ion of new station. During the 1953 winter hut built on View Point, Duse Bay (‘Base V’), and occupied intermittently for meteorological work, survey and geology; James Ross Island survey completed and Borchgrevink Nunatak area resurveyed by Hope Bay parties. John Biscoe visited South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands. One man died and was buried on Deception Island, 17 November 1953.

        

1952-53 Norwegian whaling voyage

         Harald Myhre     Southern Venturer

         Christian Salvesen and Company factory ship circumnavigated Antarctica from South Georgia during a whaling season, the only whaling voyage to have accomplished this completely.

        

1953 Criminal law case was heard before the Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, 14 April; it concerned protection of wildlife. [Civil and criminal cases had been tried in Antarctic regions previously (the first at South Georgia, 24 October 1910, by a Falkland Islands Dependencies Magistrate) but this was the earliest case in the region subsequently covered by the Antarctic Treaty.]

        

1953 South Georgia; the obsolete whale-catcher Southern Wave, from Leith, was scuttled off Stromness Bay.

        

1953 British naval voyage

         Denis Guy Douglas Hall-Wright    HMS Snipe

         Alan William Frank Sutton        HMS Bigbury Bay

         Snipe assisted 4 men of the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey Admiralty Bay station marooned at Port Hennequin; in February supported Falkland Islands Dependencies civil authorities in removal of the Argentine and Chilean huts on the landing ground near Whalers Bay, Deception Island; deported the 2 occupants of the Argentine hut to South Georgia and thence to Argentina aboard Quilmes; Snipe and later Bigbury Bay, remained on patrol in Deception Island waters until mid-April. Royal Marine detachment spent 3 months on Deception Island.

        

1953 International whale-marking expedition

         Johan T. Ruud

         Martin Marthinsen        Enern (whale-catcher)

         Whale-marking voyage in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in November and December; sponsored by British, Netherlands, and Norwegian whaling organizations; Enern visited South Georgia.

        

1953-54 British naval voyage

         Paul Robert Helfrich Harrison    HMS Nereide

         Basil Chrystie Ward      HMS St Austell Bay

         Nereide, with the Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford) aboard, inspected South Georgia whaling stations, and British and other stations in South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands; in March 1954 St Austell Bay escorted the Argentine Minister of Marine (aboard Les Eclaireurs) throughout his tour of Argentine Antarctic stations. Royal Marine detachment spent 4 months on Deception Island.

        

1953-54 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         William Turner (Hope Bay)

         Frederick George Bird (Port Lockroy)

         George Ethelbert Hemmen (Deception Island)

         Ralph Anthony Lenton (Argentine Islands)

         Harold Smith (Signy Island)

         David John George (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         (Leaders for summer and 1954 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston John Biscoe

         All stations relieved; on Argentine Islands, new station on Galindez Island constructed and occupied in the 1954 winter (replacing Winter Island station); South Georgia whaling stations visited; Deception Island and Joinville Island surveyed by summer parties; South Sandwich Islands examined. During the 1954 winter Hope Bay parties began large-scale local topographical survey, occupying View Point hut, March to November, and a provision depot at Seal Nunataks. Independent party of Bernard Stonehouse and William Nigel Bonner, made biological observations and collections at the Bay of Isles and elsewhere on South Georgia; field station established at Ample Bay, October 1953 to February 1955.

        

1953-54 South Georgia Survey [II] (Britain)

         Verner Duncan Carse

         Second summer; topographic and geological survey of the island continued; north-western end visited, coastal examination and visit to Annenkov Island made aboard Albatros. Geological collections made in south-eastern region.

        

1954 South Georgia; the obsolete whale-catcher Southern Shore, from Leith, was scuttled off Stromness Bay.

        

1954-55 Argentine expedition

         Alicio E. Ogara (in command of summer operations)

         Luis J. Etcheves (‘Melchior’, Gamma Island)

         Luis Messiga (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Eduardo Sciurano (‘Decepción’, Deception Island)

         Eduardo Pérez Tomas (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Eduardo Aníbal Valette (‘General San Martín’, Barry Island)

         Enzo H. Balliana and Jorge R. González Moreno (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay;

         combined army and navy station)

         Carlos A. Bonino (‘Teniente Cámara’, Half Moon Island)

         Hernán Pujato (‘General Belgrano’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1955 winter)

         Luis Tristán de Villalobos        General San Martín

         Aurelio C. López de Bertodano     Bahía Buen Suceso

         Benigno I. M. Varela     Bahía Aguirre

         Jorge Federico Pablo Wicht       Punta Loyola

         Héctor A. Suffern Moine   Sanavirón

         Adolfo V. R. Bluthgen    Chiriguano

         Antonio Revuelto Yámana

         All stations relieved; new meteorological station (‘Belgrano’) established by the army on the Filchner Ice Shelf during first voyage of icebreaker General San Martín; oceanographic and survey work conducted off Coats Land and in the Weddell Sea. Refuge huts built in Mikkelsen Harbour, Trinity Island (‘Capitán Caillet Bois’); on Petermann Island (‘Groussac’); at Dorian Bay, Wiencke Island; and on Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands (‘Teniente Esquivel’); 7 existing refuge huts temporarily occupied, including Potter Cove, where aircraft were based. Extensive surveys made, largely from aircraft (indications of mountains were seen from 82°S, 1955-56); substantial geophys- ical programmes inaugurated; biological and geological investigations made; helicopters photographed the South Sandwich Islands. During the 1955 winter Hope Bay personnel built 3 refuge huts: in Duse Bay (‘Cristo Redentor’), on Tabarin Peninsula (‘Antonio Moro’), and on Petersson Island (‘Liberador’); Barry Island personnel built a refuge on Northeast Glacier (‘Yapeyú’). Two men died during the summer operations.

        

1954-55 British naval voyage

         Lionel Robert Patrick Lawford    HMS Veryan Bay

         Patrick Durrant Hoare    HMS Burghead Bay

         Veryan Bay visited South Georgia whaling stations and British and other stations in South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands; conducted hydrographic surveys at the northern end of King George Island, accompanied by the Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Sir Oswald Raynor Arthur). Burghead Bay visited South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands.

        

1954-55 British South Georgia Expedition

         George A. Sutton

         Transported to South Georgia aboard the whaling supply ship Southern Opal, a group of 5 mountaineers attempted, without success, to climb Mount Paget (the highest peak). They reached several other summits and conducted some survey.

        

1954-55 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         William Ellery McMahon Anderson (Hope Bay)

         Alan Michael Carroll (Port Lockroy)

         Cyril Hugh Palmer (Deception Island)

         Ross Vernon Hesketh (Argentine Islands)

         Harold Dollman (Signy Island)

         John Rushton Noble (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         Peter Ralph Hooper (Anvers Island)

         Kenneth Mitchell Gaul (Horseshoe Island)

         (Leaders for summer and 1955 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston John Biscoe

         Olav Johannessen Norsel

         All stations relieved by John Biscoe; party landed in Biscoe Bay, Anvers Island to reconnoitre a site for new station, but found no access to interior; new stations established in Arthur Harbour, Anvers Island (‘Base N’) and on Horseshoe Island in Marguerite Bay (‘Base Y’) by Norsel; Johannessen Harbour, in Martin Islands, and Gerlache Strait area surveyed. The Governor, Sir Oswald Raynor Arthur, inspected all stations except Horseshoe Island. During the 1955 winter Hope Bay parties continued local survey, occupied View Point hut from January to November (John Biscoe left a supply depot on Beak Island), resurveyed east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula between Cape Fairweather and Cape Alexander, and studied problems of cold acclimatization and dog physiology; Anvers Island survey began in August, and Horseshoe Island parties initiated meteorological, surveying and geological programmes. [The hut at ‘Base Y’ is now protected as a ‘historic site’.]

        

1954-57 South Georgia; Robert Edward Spivey appointed Magistrate, resident at King Edward Point, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, 20 April 1954. He held the post until 3 April 1957.

        

1955 South Georgia; the obsolete whale-catcher Stina, from Leith, was scuttled off Stromness Bay, 3 February.

        

1955 Antarctic Place-names Committee (Britain) published Gazetteer of the Falkland Islands Dependencies. Several supplements were issued; after 1962 the Gazetteer of the British Antarctic Territory and after 1985 the Gazetteer of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, with their supplements and later editions, replaced it for the appropriate territories.

        

1955-56 Argentine expedition

         Emilio L. Díaz (in command of summer operations)

         Eduardo Massocco (‘Melchior’, Gamma Island)

         Domingo W. Lucero (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Edmundo Trejo Lema (‘Decepción’, Deception Island)

         Eduardo Pérez Tomas (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Jorge A. Elizagaray (‘General San Martín’, Barry Island)

         Horacio F. Giorgi and Nicolás Jorge Méndez (‘Esperanza’,

         Hope Bay; combined army and navy station)

         Julio Sbarbi Osuna (‘Teniente Cámara’, Half Moon Island)

         Hernán Pujato (‘General Belgrano’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1956 winter)

         Luis M. Iriart   General San Martín

         David O. Funcia  Bahía Aguirre

         Juan Carlos Kelly        Chiriguano

         All existing stations relieved; 7 refuge huts temporarily occupied; refuge hut built on Watkins Island, Biscoe Islands (‘Capitán Estivariz’). Early in 1956 2 small aircraft made reconnaissance flights southwards from ‘Belgrano’ station to latitude 83°S (discovered ‘Cordón los Menucos’ [later Shackleton Range], ‘Montes Rufino’ [later Theron Mountains], ‘Macizo Santa Teresita’ [later Dufek Massif] and several other features). Meteorological, geophysical, and survey programmes continued; biological, glaciological and geological observations made. During the 1956 winter further sledge journeys made from Hope Bay and Barry Island, and 3 new refuge huts built – one on Robertson Island (‘San Roque’) and 2 in the Bills Gulch area (‘Chacabuco’, and ‘Maipú’). Mario B. Giovinetto lowered by a helicopter from Bahía Aguirre, made the first landing on Shag Rocks, 6 March 1956; collected geological specimens. ‘Teniente Esquivel’ refuge on Thule Island, South Sandwich Islands, occupied, 14 December 1955, but evacuated, 14 January 1956, by General San Martín, after a volcanic eruption occurred on Bristol Island. Two men died during the summer and another during the winter. [The discoveries made by the ‘Belgrano’ flights were later seen by United States expeditions or the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition; the Argentines did not publish the names until some years later, the others produced maps shortly after the rediscovery.]

        

1955-56 British naval voyage

         John Valentine Wilkinson HMS Protector

         Visited British and other stations in South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula; made numerous soundings along north and west coasts of the latter; made ice reconnaissance in the Weddell Sea to assist the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition’s ship Theron, which was beset; helicopters also used to reconnoitre site for new Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey station on Danco Coast, to transport Royal Marine detachment to and from Anvers Island for training ashore, and to assist search for Argentine seaman reported adrift in Hope Bay (he was not found); inspected Argentine hut on Thule Island, South Sandwich Islands; landed on Saunders Island and Visokoi Island; photo- graphed Bristol, Montagu, Visokoi, and Saunders Islands from the air; visited South Georgia.

        

1955-56 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         Ronald Francis Worswick (Hope Bay)

         Alan Michael Carroll (Port Lockroy)

         Percy Guyver (Deception Island)

         Norman Alexander Hedderley (Argentine Islands)

         William Lancelot Noyes Tickell (Signy Island)

         Colin Cowan Clement (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         Peter Ralph Hooper (Anvers Island)

         Derek John Hatherill Searle (Horseshoe Island)

         Richard Arthur Foster (Danco Island)

         Thomas Leyden Murphy (Detaille Island)

         (Leaders for summer and 1956 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         Norman Roy Brown John Biscoe

         William Johnston RRS Shackleton

         Stations relieved; South Georgia whaling stations visited; John Biscoe established new meteoro- logical station on Detaille Island, off Loubet Coast (‘Base W’); Shackleton searched unsuccessfully for station site on Brabant Island; subsequently established new meteorological station on Danco Island, off Danco Coast (‘Base O’); examined Stonington Island station (evacuated in 1950); Coronation Island partially surveyed by a summer party; Sandefjord Bay hut found wrecked. Governor, Sir Oswald Raynor Arthur, inspected several stations, March. During the 1956 winter radio-sonde observations began at Argentine Islands; refuge hut built on Doumer Island; survey and geological programmes initiated at Danco Island and Detaille Island stations, and possible routes to the Antarctic Peninsula inland plateau reconnoitred; survey programmes at Hope Bay, Anvers Island, and Horseshoe Island continued. Mount Nivea (1265 m), highest peak of South Orkney Islands, climbed by Tickell and A. Grant, 11 September 1956. [John Biscoe resumed the name HMS Pretext at end of the summer, later in 1956 became HMNZS Endeavour; a new vessel, RRS John Biscoe, was the replacement; Shackleton was formerly Arendal, purchased in December 1955.]

        

1955-56 Royal Society International Geophysical Year Expedition I (Britain)

         David Geoffrey Dalgliesh (Halley Bay; Leader for summer and 1956 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Leif Jakobsen    Tottan

         Advance party established an International Geophysical Year station near Halley Bay, on the Brunt Ice Shelf of Coats Land; Dalgliesh took formal possession of the region for Queen Elizabeth II, 6 January 1956; ship also visited South Georgia. During the 1956 winter construction of the station was completed and pilot scientific programme initiated.

        

1955-56 South Georgia Survey [III] (Britain)

         Verner Duncan Carse

         Third summer; topographic survey of the island continued; Kohl-Larsen Plateau, several other inland areas, and Royal Bay regions visited.

        

1955-58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition [Crossing Party]

         Vivian Ernest Fuchs (Leader of expedition;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Harald Maro/     Theron

         Hans Christian Petersen  Magga Dan

         Members from Britain, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa participated. In January and February 1956 Theron established ‘Shackleton’ base at 77∙95°S, 37∙27°W, on the Filchner Ice Shelf, and 8 men led by Kenneth Victor Blaiklock wintered for 1956; also visited South Georgia and Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands. During 1956-57 Magga Dan transported the main crossing party to ‘Shackleton’; also visited South Georgia. Theron visited the Royal Society International Geophysical Year Expedition station at Halley Bay (1955-56). Reconnaissance and survey sledge journeys were made in Coats Land; in April 1957 aircraft of a Royal Air Force detachment established ‘South Ice’ advance base, 500 km inland from ‘Shackleton’ (Blaiklock was 1957 winter leader), field party investigated Shackleton Range (see also Argentine expedition, 1955-56). Antarctica crossed by 12 men overland from ‘Shackleton’ to ‘Scott Base’ between 24 November 1957 and 2 March 1958 (3500 km in 99 days), United States South Pole station was visited, 20 to 24 January 1958; single-engined Otter aircraft, piloted by John Harding Lewis, flew across the continent from ‘South Ice’ to ‘Scott Base’ on 6 January 1958. Seismic soundings, gravity traverse, glaciology, meteorology and geology studies conducted during the crossing.

        

1956 South Georgia; the obsolete whale-catchers Busen 6 and Busen 8, from Husvik, were scuttled off Stromness Bay.

        

1956-57 Argentine expedition

         Helvio N. Guozden (in command of summer operations)

         Ariel A. Giuntini (‘Melchior’, Gamma Island)

         Miguel J. Guruceaga (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Zenón Saúl Bolino (‘Decepción’, Deception Island)

         Ernesto J. Sgandurra (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Rafael Walter Muriel (‘General San Martín’, Barry Island)

         Nicolás Jorge Méndez (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         José M. González Silvano (‘Teniente Cámara’, Half Moon Island)

         Jorge Edgard Leal (‘General Belgrano’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1957 winter)

         Jorge Alberto Boffi      General San Martín

         José C. T. Carbone        Bahía Aguirre

         Angel L. Bernasconi      Chiriguano

         Eduardo H. Fraga Sanavirón

         Alberto de Marotte       Bahía Thetis

         Eight existing stations relieved; 7 refuge huts temporarily occupied; new refuge hut built on Rabot Island (‘Cadete Edgardo Luis Guillochon’); hydrographic survey made of Grandidier Channel and South Sandwich Islands visited. Programmes included meteorological, auroral, glaciological, geo- logical and other investigations. During winter personnel from Barry Island built 3 refuge huts – on Millerand Island (’17° de Agosto’), on Terra Firma Island (‘Granaderos’) and on Henkes Island (‘Paso de los Andes’), and Filchner Ice Shelf personnel built one at Moltke Nunataks (‘Salta’). During December the Argentine Vice-President, Rear-Admiral Isaac F. Rojas, visited Argentine Antarctic naval stations at Deception Island, Melchior Islands, and Half Moon Island. One man fatally injured falling from a mountain, 12 August 1957.

        

1956-57 Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions

         Harry Preston Black (Macquarie Island)

         Keith Benson Mather (‘Mawson’, Mac. Robertson Land)

         William Robert John Dingle (‘Davis’, Ingrid Christensen Coast)

         (Officers-in-charge for summer and 1957 winter;

         appointed Justices of the Peace for Tasmania or Australian Antarctic Territory)

         Jeremiah Donovan and Phillip Garth Law (Voyage Leaders)

         Kaj Hindberg     Kista Dan

         First voyage, November to December 1956, relieved Macquarie Island station. Second voyage, December 1956 to March 1957, relieved ‘Mawson’ and established a new station ‘Davis’ in Princess Elizabeth Land, 13 January; continued coastal air reconnaissance; ship also visited Iles Kerguelen and Vincennes Bay in Wilkes Land. Field station established near Taylor Glacier, 100 km west of ‘Mawson’, relieved by air every 6 weeks. During the 1957 winter comprehensive scientific programmes for the International Geophysical Year were inaugurated at all stations and a traverse to southern Prince Charles Mountains was begun (see 1957-58).

        

1956-57 British Royal cruise

         Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

         Sir Conolly Abel Smith   HMY Britannia

         HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, accompanied by the Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, Sir Oswald Raynor Arthur, visited British stations in South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula, January 1957. Royal party transferred from Britannia to RRS John Biscoe for part of this cruise, escorted by HMS Protector. Also visited South Georgia, Gough Island and Tristan da Cunha. [This was part of a series of Royal Visits to the British Commonwealth and Empire.]

        

1956-57 British naval voyage

         John Valentine Wilkinson HMS Protector

         Visited Hanusse Bay to collect the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey personnel stranded on Roux Island, and returned them to Detaille Island station by helicopter. Visited South Georgia; landed on Vindication Island, South Sandwich Islands, by helicopter and photographed other islands in the group from the air; helped with relief of British stations; escorted HMY Britannia during HRH Prince Philip’s Antarctic tour, January 1957. Conducted a survey of Tristan da Cunha, April.

        

1956-57 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         Lee Rice (Hope Bay)

         Colin Cowan Clement (Port Lockroy)

         John Paisley (Deception Island)

         David Emerson (Argentine Islands)

         Cecil Dagwell Scotland (Signy Island)

         Alan Precious (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         John Whiteside Thompson (Anvers Island)

         Percy Guyver (Horseshoe Island)

         Richard Arthur Foster (Danco Island)

         Angus Bruce Erskine (Detaille Island)

         Ronald Miller (Prospect Point)

         (Leaders for summer and 1957 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston RRS John Biscoe

         Norman Roy Brown RRS Shackleton

         Stations relieved, Duse Bay and View Point stations occupied intermittently; South Georgia whaling stations visited. In January 1957 HRH Prince Philip, the Governor (Sir Oswald Raynor Arthur), and Acting Director (Sir Raymond Priestley) joined John Biscoe for a visit to the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey stations, met HMY Britannia off Loubet Coast and Port Lockroy. New station established on Prospect Point, Graham Coast (‘Base J’); 3 refuge huts built – at Portal Point, 64∙50°S, 61∙77°W) on Danco Coast, east of Detaille Island on Loubet Coast, and on Blaiklock Island in Marguerite Bay, a field party wintered in the first of these. Shackleton (with the Governor, Sir Oswald Raynor Arthur, aboard) damaged by ice near South Orkney Islands after landing field parties on Coronation Island; assisted by HMS Protector and repaired at South Georgia. During the 1957 winter survey of Anvers Island and Coronation Island completed; sledge parties linked surveys between Detaille Island and Horseshoe Island stations, and between Hope Bay station and Portal Point refuge. All stations took part in International Geophysical Year programme. One man drowned in Admiralty Bay, 24 March 1956. [RRS John Biscoe was a new vessel, launched in June 1956, first commissioned for this summer. This year had 13 stations, the largest number of British stations wintering in the Antarctic.]

        

1956-57 Japanese fisheries voyage

         Takeharu Kumagori        Umitaka-maru (1st voyage)

         First Tokyo University of Marine Science Antarctic Ocean Research Expedition; training voyage on the Southern Ocean, between 25°E and 45°E, in the vicinity of Lützow-Holmbukta, October 1956 to April 1957; biological and oceanographic observations undertaken. Accompanied and assisted Sôya, and visited South Georgia.

        

1956-57 Norwegian Antarctic Expedition (1956-60)

         Sigurd Gunnarson Helle (‘Norske Stasjon’ [‘Norway Station’],

         Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst; Leader for summer and 1957 winter)

         John Jakobsen    Polarsirkel

         Bernt A. Brandal Polarbjo/rn

         Norsk Polarinstitutt established ‘Norske Stasjon’ at 70∙50°S, 02∙87°W, 35 km inland on Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst, Dronning Maud Land, for the International Geophysical Year. Scientific programmes included geophysics, meteorology, geology, surveying, and glaciology. A secondary station was established on the coast. Vessels also visited South Georgia.

        

1956-57 Royal Society International Geophysical Year Expedition II (Britain)

         Robert Arthur Smart (Halley Bay; Leader for summer and 1957 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Hans Christian Petersen  Magga Dan

         Leif Jakobsen    Tottan

         Advance party relieved, and main scientific team installed. International Geophysical Year scientific programme included meteorology, geomagnetism, seismology, glaciology and ionospheric observations. The ships also visited South Georgia and Magga Dan carried relief party and stores for the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition. Flight made to Tottanfjella, Dronning Maud Land, 11 January 1957; these mountains had been observed in October 1956 during abnormal atmospheric conditions.

        

1956-57 South Georgia Survey [IV] (Britain)

         Verner Duncan Carse

         Fourth summer; leader returned alone to complete topographic survey of the island which was initiated in 1951. [Results published in 1958 (q.v.) as a vastly improved map of the island.]

        

1957 Winter stations; in this year 54 scientific stations were open in Antarctic regions: 15 on the peri-Antarctic islands and 39 on Antarctica. These were operated by 11 countries and participated in the observations of the International Geophysical Year (1957-58) which began on 1 July. They were: Argentine stations: ‘Melchior’ (Gamma Island, 64∙33°S, 62∙98°W), ‘Orcadas’* (Laurie Island, 60∙74°S, 44∙73°W), ‘Decepción’ (Deception Island, 62∙98°S, 60∙70°W), ‘Almirante Brown’ (Paradise Harbour, 64∙88°S, 62∙87°W), ‘General San Martín’ (Barry Island, 68∙13°S, 67∙10°W), ‘Esperanza’* (Hope Bay, 63∙39°S, 56∙99°W), ‘Teniente Cámara’ (Half Moon Island, 62∙60°S, 59∙95°W), and ‘General Belgrano’* (Filchner Ice Shelf, 77∙78°S, 38∙23°W); Australian stations: Macquarie Island* (54∙50°S, 158∙95°E), ‘Mawson’* (Mac. Robertson Land, 67∙60°S, 62∙87°E), ‘Davis’* (Ingrid Christensen Coast, 68∙57°S, 77∙97°E), and Taylor Glacier (67∙45°S, 60∙83°E); British stations: Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey; ‘Base A’ (Port Lockroy, 64∙83°S, 63∙52°W), ‘Base B’ (Deception Island, 62∙98°S, 60∙57°W), ‘Base D’ (Hope Bay, 63∙40°S, 56∙98°W), ‘Base F’* (Argentine Islands, 65∙25°S, 64∙25°W), ‘Base G’ (Admiralty Bay, 62∙08°S, 58∙42°W), ‘Base H’ (Signy Island, 60∙72°S, 45∙60°W), ‘Base J’ (Prospect Point, 66∙00°S, 65∙34°W), ‘Base N’ (Anvers Island, 64∙77°S, 64∙08°W), ‘Base O’ (Danco Island, 64∙73°S, 62∙60°W), ‘Base W’ (Detaille Island, 66∙87°S, 66∙79°W), ‘Base Y’ (Horseshoe Island, 67∙81°S, 67∙30°W), and Portal Point (64∙50°S, 61∙77°W); Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service, ‘Base M’* (King Edward Point, South Georgia, 54∙28°S, 36∙50°W); Royal Society expedition; Halley Bay* (75∙52°S, 26∙75°W); Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition [Crossing Party] (Britain, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa) ‘Shackleton’, Filchner Ice Shelf (77∙95°S, 37∙27°W) and ‘South Ice’, inland Filchner Ice Shelf (81∙93°S, 29∙50°W); Chilean stations: ‘Capitán Arturo Prat’ (Greenwich Island, 62∙48°S, 59∙66°W), ‘General Bernardo O’Higgins Riquelme’ and ‘Luis Risopatrón’* (combined station, Cape Legoupil, 63∙32°S, 57∙90°W), ‘Presidente Gabriel González Videla’ (Paradise Harbour, 64∙82°S, 62∙87°W), and ‘Presidente Pedro Aguirre Cerda’ (Deception Island, 62∙93°S, 60∙60°W); French stations: la Roche Godon* (Ile Amsterdam, 37∙83°S, 77∙59°E), Port- aux-Français* (Iles Kerguelen, 49∙35°S, 70∙20°E), ‘Dumont d’Urville’* (Terre Adélie, 66∙67°S, 140∙01°E), and ‘Charcot’ (inland Terre Adélie, 69∙37°S, 139∙02°E); Japanese station: ‘Syowa’, Ongul (69∙00°S, 39∙58°E); New Zealand and Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition combined station: ‘Scott Base’* (Ross Island, 77∙85°S, 166∙76°E); New Zealand station: Campbell Island (52∙54°S, 169∙74°E); New Zealand and United States joint station: Cape Hallett (72∙42°S, 170∙27°E); Norwegian station: ‘Norske Stasjon’ [‘Norway Station’] (70∙50°S, 02∙87°W); South African stations: Marion Island* (46∙87°S, 37∙86°E) and Gough Island* (40∙32°S, 09∙85°W); Soviet Union stations: ‘Mirnyy’* (Queen Mary Land, 66∙55°S, 93∙01°E), Pionerskaya’ (inland Queen Mary Land, 69∙73°S, 95∙50°E), ‘Oazis’, Bunger Hills (66∙27°S, 101∙75°E), ‘Komsomol’skaya’ (inland Queen Mary Land, 74∙10°S, 97∙50°E), ‘Vostok-I’ (inland Queen Mary Land, 72∙15°S, 97∙60°E); United States stations: ‘Little America V’ (Kainan Bay, 78∙16°S, 162∙28°W), ‘Williams Air Operations Facility’ [‘McMurdo’]* (Ross Island, 77∙85°S, 166∙67°E), South Pole* (90°S), ‘Byrd’ (Rockefeller Plateau, 80∙00°S, 120∙00°W), ‘Wilkes’* (Windmill Islands, 66∙25°S, 110∙58°E), and ‘Ellsworth’ (Filchner Ice Shelf, 77∙72°S, 41∙12°W). [The mark * indicates the 20 of these stations open continuously until the International Polar Years of 2007-09, several had been transferred to other countries, a few reconstructed, and some names have changed; other stations became summer ones or were closed for various periods. This is the largest number of winter scientific stations open in the Antarctic.]

        

1957-58 Argentine expedition

         Alberto Patrón Laplacette (in command of summer operations)

         Luis O. Ventimiglia (‘Melchior’, Gamma Island)

         Alejandro José Giusti (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Oscar Montes (‘Decepción’, Deception Island)

         Horacio Méndez (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Gustavo Adolfo Giró Tapper (‘General San Martín’, Barry Island)

         Alberto P. Giovannini (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         Raúl O. Billinghurst (‘Teniente Cámara’, Half Moon Island)

         Jorge A. de Marzi (‘General Belgrano’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1958 winter)

         Luis R. A. Capurro       General San Martín

         Luis C. Fernández Bahía Aguirre

         Atilio A. Barbadori      Chiriguano

         All existing stations relieved; refuge built south-east of Cape Jeremy (‘Nogal de Saldán’), South Sandwich Islands visited. Scientific work conducted included biology, geology, meteorology, geomagnetics, gravimetry, and an all-sky camera was installed at ‘Belgrano’ station for auroral observations. Helicopter and crew of 3 lost, 26 February 1958, and another man died, 18 May.

        

1957-58 British naval voyage

         Adrian Rothwell Lane Butler      HMS Protector

         Assisted Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey ships and personnel in triangulation of South Shetland Islands, by landing survey parties on Greenwich Island, Robert Island, and Livingston Island; took air photographs from helicopters of coast of South Georgia, November 1957, and in French Passage, March 1958; made hydrographic surveys of Stromness Bay and Cumberland Bay, South Georgia.

        

1957-58 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         James Muir Smith (Port Lockroy)

         Donald McCalman (Hope Bay)

         John Edward Dagless (Deception Island)

         Joseph Charles Farman (Argentine Islands)

         Peter Anthony Richards (Signy Island)

         David Robin Kimber Stephens (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         Peter McCausland Gibbs (Stonington Island)

         John Paisley (Horseshoe Island)

         George Duncan Boston (Danco Island)

         Brian Leonard Hobson Foote (Detaille Island)

         George Kennedy McLeod (Prospect Point)

         (Leaders for summer and 1958 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston RRS John Biscoe

         Norman Roy Brown RRS Shackleton

         Leif Jakobsen    Tottan

         Stonington Island station reopened, March 1958. International Geophysical Year programmes cont- inued. Survey made of Livingston Island and Greenwich Island (South Shetland Islands). Glacio- logical studies continued on South Georgia. Geological investigation made of Powell Island and adjacent islands. Specimens for palaeomagnetic examination taken from 60 localities. Party of 3 from Horseshoe Island, lost crossing sea-ice, 27 May.

        

1957-58 Norwegian Antarctic Expedition (1956-60)

         Sigurd Gunnarson Helle (‘Norske Stasjon’ [‘Norway Station’],

         Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst; Leader for summer and 1958 winter)

         Leif Jakobsen    Tottan

         Norsk Polarinstitutt station relieved; International Geophysical Year and other programmes continued. Summer party operated in Mühlig-Hofmannfjella. Tottan also visited South Georgia and relieved Halley Bay station.

        

1957-58 Soviet Union whaling voyage

         Aleksey Nikolayevich Solyanik    Slava 15

         Whale-catcher used to visit South Sandwich Islands in January and December, landings made on Zavodovski Island, 16 December 1957, and Montagu Island, 20 January 1958.

        

1957-59 South Georgia; John W. Matthew appointed Magistrate, resident at King Edward Point, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, 4 April 1957. He held the post until 25 June 1959. He introduced Upland Geese, Chloephaga picta, from Falkland Islands, February 1958, but they failed to survive.

        

1958 Argentine Navy [Armada Argentina] published Derrotero Argentino; Antártida y Archipelagos Subantarticos Argentinos giving navigation and other information about ‘Antártida Argentina’, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands.

        

1958 South Georgia; British Directorate of Overseas Surveys published a 1 : 200 000 map of the island (DOS 610), showing inland topographic detail resulting from the 4 summers’ field work of the South Georgia Surveys, 1951-57, led by Verner Duncan Carse. [Revised edition published in 2005.]

        

1958 United States and Argentine oceanographic voyage

         Henry Kohler (?) Vema (United States)

         Ricardo Moreno Kiernan   Sanavirón (Argentina)

         Operated jointly between January and March in the Scotia Sea and near South Sandwich Islands as part of the International Geophysical Year programme.

        

1958-59 Argentine expedition

         Adolfo A. R. Schultze (in command of summer operations)

         Carlos Beis (‘Melchior’, Gamma Island)

         Emilio Filipich (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Rodolfo C. Castorina (‘Decepción’, Deception Island)

         Luis Rodríguez Varela (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Gustavo Adolfo Giró Tapper (‘General San Martín’, Barry Island)

         Ignacio Carro (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         Ernesto D. Mignone (‘Teniente Cámara’, Half Moon Island)

         Pedro Pascual Pancracio Arcondo (‘General Belgrano’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         Jorge H. Suárez (‘Ellsworth’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1959 winter)

         Jorge H. E. Pernice      General San Martín

         Tomás A. Suárez del Cerro  Bahía Aguirre

         Carlos Mayer     Chiriguano

         Gerado Zaratiegui        Guarani

         All existing stations relieved; ‘Ellsworth’ International Geophysical Year station transferred to Argentina by the United States, 3 February 1959; new refuge (‘Virgen de las Nieves’) built south of ‘Belgrano’; major fire damaged Barry Island station, 2 February 1959; Hope Bay station personnel built 4 refuge huts at Larsen Nunatak (‘San Antonio’), Cape Sobral (‘Guaraní’) and James Ross Island (‘San Carlos’ and ‘San Juan’). Activities included biology, geology, oceanography, and aerial photographic survey of Snow Hill Island, Cape Sobral, and Robertson Island. Guarani foundered off Isla de los Estados with loss of 38 lives, 15 October 1958, during an attempted medical evacuation; one man lost from ‘Ellsworth’, 9 July 1959.

        

1958-59 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         Henry Alan David Cameron (Port Lockroy)

         Peter John Hodkinson (Deception Island)

         Keith Roland Bell (Argentine Islands)

         James Walter Stammers (Signy Island)

         Michael John Stansbury (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         Donald McCalman (Hope Bay)

         Robin M. Perry (Horseshoe Island)

         George Ronald Lush (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1959 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston RRS John Biscoe

         John Fulford Blackburn   RRS Shackleton

         Leif Jakobsen    Tottan

         All stations relieved during an exceptionally bad sea-ice year; Royal Society’s station at Halley Bay transferred to Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, midnight 13 January 1959 (becoming ‘Base Z’); Danco Island, Detaille Island, and Prospect Point stations closed. USS Glacier assisted RRS John Biscoe reaching stations on Horseshoe Island and Stonington Island (latter evacuated for the winter owing to difficulty of supply). USCGC Northwind assisted with relief of stations at the Argentine Islands and Port Lockroy. International Geophysical Year observations continued until the end of 1958. Field work undertaken on South Shetland Islands and adjacent mainland.

        

1958-59 South Georgia Biological Expedition (Britain)

         William Lancelot Noyes Tickell

         Arrived on South Georgia 24 September; 2 men conducted ornithological and other research at Elsehul to 24 November; thence landed on Bird Island, where, after the beginning of a Fur Seal study and deployment of a field hut with the Government Sealing Inspector (William Nigel Bonner), the study continued to 6 March; plane-table survey made of Bird Island. Transport provided by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey and whaling companies.

        

1959 South Georgia; the obsolete whale-catcher Busen 10, from Husvik, was scuttled off Stromness Bay.

        

1959-60 British naval voyage

         David Noel Forbes        HMS Protector

         Visited the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands to provide logistic assistance for Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey; participated in tellurometer survey in Bransfield Strait, but programme restricted by limited time and bad weather; air photographic reconnaissance made of the north coast of South Georgia and Willis Islands with helicopters; visited South Sandwich Islands (discovered a colony of Fur Seals).

        

1959-60 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         John Crabbe Cunningham (Port Lockroy)

         Ian Thomas Jackson (Deception Island)

         Neil Wallace Morison Orr (Hope Bay)

         Eric Christopher John Clapp (Argentine Islands)

         Robert Bernard Harrison (Signy Island)

         Michael Dennis Kershaw (Admiralty Bay, King George Island)

         Peter Derek Forster (Horseshoe Island)

         Norman Alexander Hedderley (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1960 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Kaj Hindberg     Kista Dan

         Kista Dan chartered to assist John Biscoe to relieve stations; gravity and magnetic surveys along the Scotia Ridge and north-west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula undertaken from Shackleton which also visited Marion Island, Gough Island, and Tristan da Cunha, to relieve South African stations. Severe ice prevented ship relief of Horseshoe Island (even with assistance from USS Glacier), relief made by aircraft from Deception Island; parties intending to winter on Stonington Island and to open a station on Adelaide Island redeployed to Winter Island and Deception Island. Additional ground control data obtained for 1955 to 1957 aerial surveys and tellurometer links between the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands extended. Detailed geological mapping undertaken of the Argentine Islands, James Ross Island region, and Marguerite Bay. Sea-ice dynamics investigated in the Weddell Sea. Royal naval party, led by J. C. Grattan, worked with officers of RRS Shackleton, making extensive surveys in Gerlache Strait and the northern approaches, around South Georgia, and off the South Shetland Islands. Two men died on King George Island, April and July 1959.

        

1959-60 Norwegian fisheries expedition

         ?      Träl

         Visited South Georgia and the Scotia Sea.

        

1959-69 South Georgia; Dennis Joseph Coleman appointed Magistrate, resident at King Edward Point, by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, 26 June 1959. He held the post until 13 November 1969, when the islands administration was taken over by the British Antarctic Survey (1969, q.v.). He introduced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) to Gull Lake in 1964; they failed to survive.

        

1960-61 British naval voyage

         Geoffrey Penrose Dickinson Hall  HMS Owen

         Visited Tristan da Cunha. Conducted hydrographic surveys at South Georgia for 2 months (launch Fantome foundered in Bird Sound). An advance party, under J. B. Dixon, was taken to the island by HMS Protector to establish ground control. Visited Gough Island, February 1961, R. S. McKinnon collected plants.

        

1960-61 British naval voyage

         David Noel Forbes        HMS Protector

         Visited South Georgia and all British stations on the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, and South Orkney Islands to provide logistic assistance; worked with the Falkland Islands Depend- encies Survey ships and personnel in mapping of Joinville Island group. Unusually favourable ice conditions allowed penetration southwards to Marguerite Bay.

        

1960-61 British naval mountaineering expedition

         Vivian North Stevenson

         Royal Naval party of 16 men climbed in the Allardyce Range, South Georgia; 2 reached the summit of the west peak of Mount Paget (2915 m, 19 m lower than the east peak), December. Expedition transported by HMS Protector.

        

1960-61 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (Britain)

         John Brian Nixon (Port Lockroy)

         John Basil Killingbeck (Deception Island)

         Ian Leonard Fothergill (Hope Bay)

         John Crabbe Cunningham (Stonington Island)

         Robert Samuel Matthew Harkness (Argentine Islands)

         Russell D. Thompson (Signy Island)

         Frank Preston (Adelaide Island)

         Colin Johnson (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1961 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         John P. Smith (Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island;

         Officer-in-charge for summer and 1961 winter)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Kaj Hindberg     Kista Dan

         Admiralty Bay station closed, January 1961; stations established at Fossil Bluff (‘Base KG’) and southern Adelaide Island (‘Base T’); Horseshoe Island station closed in August 1960 when Stonington Island station reopened. Marine geophysical investigation of the Scotia Ridge conducted, in cooperation with University of Birmingham, aboard Shackleton (the gravity measurements were linked to the international network); ship also visited South Sandwich Islands, landed on Zavodovski Island, Candlemas Island, Saunders Island, Vindication Island, Visokoi Island, and Leskov Island. Detailed geological survey of James Ross Island group and adjacent coast conducted. Fur Seal survey conducted made on Bird Island and of the flora generally on South Georgia made. Beaver aircraft lost through ice at the Argentine Islands, September 1960; replaced by a second Otter (both aircraft wintered in the open on Deception Island). Shackleton also called at Gough Island and Tristan da Cunha. One man died at Signy Island, 13 February 1961.

        

1961 South Georgia; Verner Duncan Carse (Britain) lived alone ‘as a personal psychological experiment’ at Undine South Harbour, 23 February to 13 September. His hut was destroyed by a surge wave, 20 May, and he was rescued aboard Petrel (Ole Hauge). [This was conceived as a proposed ‘Allardyce-Salvesen Expedition’ along the island’s mountain chain.]

        

1961 South Georgia; the obsolete whale-catchers Southern Spray and Southern Chief, from Leith, were scuttled off Stromness Bay, February.

        

1961 United States Antarctic Research Program Bird Island expedition

         William Lancelot Noyes Tickell

         Continued work of South Georgia Biological Expedition on Bird Island, South Georgia, January to April. Transported aboard Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey and British naval vessels.

1961-62 British naval voyage

         Robert Henry Graham      HMS Protector

         Visited all British Antarctic stations, giving logistic assistance to summer topographic survey and biological work in South Shetland Islands; seismic surveys of sea floor conducted (in conjunction with RRS Shackleton); detailed examination made of South Sandwich Islands (scientific leader Martin Wyatt Holdgate), with air photography and landings on Southern Thule, Bellingshausen Island, Saunders Island, Candlemas Island and Vindication Island; biological and geological collections made, floating pumice detected north of the islands (see 1962-63 expedition); extensive soundings and other hydrographic work conducted throughout voyage. Climbing team ascended Mount Liotard (2418 m), Adelaide Island, 23 February 1962.

        

1961-62 Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey / British Antarctic Survey

         Eric James Chinn (Deception Island)

         Ian Leonard Fothergill (Hope Bay)

         John Crabbe Cunningham (Stonington Island)

         Edward William Grimshaw (Argentine Islands)

         Peter John Tilbrook (Signy Island)

         Graham James Alexander Dewar (Adelaide Island)

         Geoffrey Michael Jarman (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1962 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         James Shirtcliffe (Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island;

         Officer-in-charge for summer and 1961 winter)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Leif A. Petersen Kista Dan

         All stations relieved (Fossil Bluff and Stonington Island by air); an aircraft hangar was constructed on Deception Island. Geological surveys continued on Nordenskjöld Coast, James Ross Island and Alexander Island. A dog sledge party established a route to Tottanfjella (Dronning Maud Land) from Halley Bay (400 km) and reconnoitred the area for future work. Ionospheric observatory transferred to Argentine Islands station from Port Lockroy, which was closed in January 1962. Landing made on Clerke Rocks, 6 December 1961; inflatable craft from Shackleton transported scientists, who made geological and biological collections. Geophysical examination of Scotia Ridge from Shackleton continued, seismic shooting conducted in eastern Bransfield Strait. Gravity readings from 1960-61 repeated and extended to Fossil Bluff. New biological programmes began on Signy Island; hut built at Shingle Cove, Coronation Island. [On 1 January 1962 the organization was renamed the British Antarctic Survey.]

        

1961-62 Japanese fisheries voyage

         Takeharu Kumagori (Scientific Leader)

         Keijirô Ozawa      Umitaka-maru (2nd voyage)

         Tokyo University of Marine Science Antarctic Ocean Research Expedition; conducted ocean- ographic, meteorological, iceberg and biological observations on the Southern Ocean between 30°W and 110°E; investigated potential fisheries around South Georgia.

        

1961-62 South African National Antarctic Expedition

         John Nagel (Marion Island [19], from April 1962)

         Pieter Albertus le Roux (Gough Island [7], from April 1962)

         Martin Johannes Du Preez (‘Norske Stasjon’ [‘Norway Station’, SANAE 3],

         Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst, from January 1962)

         (Leaders for summer and 1962 winter)

         Kenneth Thomas McNish    R.S.A.

         Continuous ionospheric measurements began at ‘Norske Stasjon’. On 8 March 1962 R.S.A. was beset by ice, about 20 March shock waves, believed to have come from a volcanic eruption in South Sandwich Islands, broke the ice and vessel got free on 23 March (the submerged volcanic cone at the north-western end of South Sandwich Islands was known to be active at this time). Medical evacuation made from Gough Island aboard Kaminji-maru, January 1963. R.S.A., a newly constructed vessel for Antarctic voyages, served until 1978.

        

1962 South Sandwich Islands; eruptions occurred at the submarine volcano to the north of these islands and on Zavodovski Island, March and April.

1962 British Antarctic Territory; following the Antarctic Treaty Order in Council, 26 February, the British Antarctic Territory was constituted as a new colony, comprising that part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies south of latitude 60°S; and the office of High Commissioner of the Territory was established. Royal Letters Patent of 2 April, provided for South Georgia (with Shag Rocks and Clerke Rocks) and South Sandwich Islands to remain Dependencies of the Falkland Islands (see also 1985).

        

1962 United States Antarctic Research Program, Bird Island expedition

         Harold Dollman

         Continued investigations, begun in 1958, on Bird Island, South Georgia; transported by British Antarctic Survey vessels.

        

1962-63 South Georgia; Crown Agents constructed a large hospital and residential building, ‘Shackleton House’, for the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government, at the administrative station on King Edward Point [demolished in 2002]. The building supervisor, Arthur Watt, died and was buried at the Grytviken cemetery.

        

1962-63 British Antarctic Survey

         Brendan Lynch (Deception Island)

         Noel Yorston Downham (Hope Bay)

         Jonathan James Ossory Clennel (Stonington Island)

         Eric James Chinn (Argentine Islands)

         Peter John Tilbrook (Signy Island)

         R. H. Leckie (Adelaide Island)

         Maurice Reginald Sumner (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1962 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Leif A. Petersen Kista Dan

         Fossil Bluff and View Point stations open for summer. Geophysical investigations, with University of Birmingham, continued from Shackleton. Traverse made from Halley Bay to Tottanfjella included radar-echo sounding of the ice with Scott Polar Research Institute equipment. Marine biological programme used the first aqualung equipment in Antarctica off Signy Island. Antarctic Treaty inspection of several stations conducted. One man, from ‘Halley’ lost on sea-ice, 15 August 1963.

        

1962-63 British naval voyage

         Robert Henry Graham      HMS Protector

         Hydrographic survey team, led by J. B. Dixon, in cooperation with British Antarctic Survey, charted the approaches to Adelaide Island; hydrographic work at South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands (investigated erupting crater 25 m below surface 35 km north of the group), Signy Island, Hope Bay, Robert Island and Argentine Islands also undertaken; surveyed Beauchêne Island. The Governor of the Falkland Islands Dependencies and High Commissioner of British Antarctic Territory (Sir Edwin Porter Arrowsmith) accompanied several voyages.

        

1962-63 United States Antarctic Research Program

         David Merrill Tyree (to 26 November 1962) and James R. Reedy (from 26 November 1962)

         (Antarctic Projects Officers and Commanders of Antarctic Naval Support Force)

         Robert Marvel (‘McMurdo’, Ross Island; Senior Naval Officer, 1963 winter)

         Raymond S. Briggs (‘McMurdo’, Ross Island)

         Charles L. Roberts (‘Amundsen-Scott’, South Pole)

         Henry M. Morozumi (‘Byrd’, Rockefeller Plateau)

         (Scientific Leaders for 1963 winter)

         E. G. Grant      USS Glacier

         E. A. Davidson   USS Edisto

         B. R. Henry      USCGC Eastwind

         John J. Metschel USS Staten Island

         Sven Rydberg     USS Eltanin

         Peter A. Gentile USNS Chattahoochee

         B. Senia USNS Mirfak

         E. Rifenburgh    USS Arneb

         R. H. McSweeney  USS Tombigbee

         C. E. Driscall   USNS Private Joseph F. Merrell

         Tellurometer survey of eastern Ross Sea region continued from Beardmore Glacier to Horlick Mountains, and from Cape Hallett to north Victoria Land; runway built on floating ice 12 m thick used at ‘McMurdo’; ‘Little Rockford’, ‘Sky-Hi’ and ‘Beardmore Glacier’ stations open for the summer. Three men of Scott’s 1910-13 expedition were guests of the expedition and visited the huts on Ross Island. Eltanin visited South Georgia calling at King Edward Point, April 1963, a later visit landed a scientific party on Bird Island, 24 August 1963 [this was the beginning of a decade of oceanographic survey from this vessel after which she was sold to Argentina and continued the work renamed Island Orcadas].

        

1962-64 United States Antarctic Research Program, Bird Island expedition

         William Lancelot Noyes Tickell

         With logistic assistance from British Antarctic Survey and financed by United States National Science Foundation, continued biological studies on Bird Island, South Georgia, where a station was built and research continued through the 1963 winter.

        

1963 South Georgia; the obsolete whale-catchers Southern Star and Stora, from Leith, were scuttled off Stromness Bay, January.

        

1963-64 Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions

         Robert O. Nunn (Macquarie Island)

         Peter J. Martin (‘Mawson’, Mac. Robertson Land)

         Norman Edward Trott (‘Davis’, Princess Elizabeth Land)

         Raymond Arthur O’Leary (‘Wilkes’, Windmill Islands)

         (Officers-in-charge for summer and 1964 winter;

         appointed Justices of the Peace for Tasmania or Australian Antarctic Territory)

         Donald Franklin Styles (Voyage Leader)

         Hans Christian Petersen  Nella Dan

         Aerial photography undertaken of coasts of Australian Antarctic Territory; biological surveys made at all stations; land traverses made from Amery Ice Shelf to Lambert Glacier and from ‘Wilkes’ southwards for 1100 km. Ionospheric investigations conducted on Macquarie Island with a series of radio-sonde balloons.

        

1963-64 British Antarctic Survey

         Leonard Usher Mole (Deception Island)

         Noel Yorston Downham (Stonington Island)

         Roderick William McLean Corner (Argentine Islands)

         Andrew David Bailey (Signy Island)

         John Crabbe Cunningham (Adelaide Island)

         Dudley Robert Jehan (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1964 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Leif A. Petersen Kista Dan

         Hope Bay station closed, February 1964 (occasionally opened during subsequent summers); new fibre-glass building constructed on Signy Island. Shackleton continued geophysical investigations of the Scotia Ridge. Reconnaissance survey made of Tottanfjella from Halley Bay station with a Norsk Polarinstitutt representative. All stations participated in the programmes of the International Years of the Quiet Sun.

        

1963-64 British naval voyage

         Martin Spencer Ollivant  HMS Protector

         Visited Falkland Islands. South Sandwich Islands Survey team, led by Martin Wyatt Holdgate, travelled aboard; detailed scientific examination made and the archipelago was surveyed, 5 to 26 March 1964. Holdgate, who was based on the ship, examined all islands except Zavodovski Island and Candlemas Island; second team, led by Peter John Tilbrook, worked on Candlemas Island for 16 days. Tellurometer survey conducted by Cecil John Copner Wynne-Edwards, landings made on and air photographs taken of all islands for a comprehensive mapping and geological investigation; a series of detailed reports and charts were published. Separate hydrographic party, led by J. B. Dixon, worked on Bismarck Strait, Gerlache Strait, and Greenwich Island.

        

1964 South Georgia; modern sealing industry finished. From its beginning, in 1909, 260 950 seals (almost all Elephant Seals) had been caught for oil.

        

1964 South Georgia; a particularly severe snow storm in September sank 7 Christian Salvesen and Company (Britain) whale-catchers moored for winter at Leith Harbour: Bouvet I, Sabra, Solvra, Sondra, Sorsa, Southern Peter, and Southern Paul.

1964-65 British Antarctic Survey

         Christopher David Walter (Deception Island)

         Michael John Cousins (Stonington Island)

         Raymond John Tidey (Argentine Islands)

         Michael James Northover (Signy Island)

         Leonard Usher Mole (Adelaide Island)

         John Philip Douglas Cotton (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1965 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         William Johnston and

         Thomas Woodfield       RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Leif A. Petersen Kista Dan

         Fossil Bluff station open for summer. All stations participated in the International Years of the Quiet Sun programmes; field station ‘Coats’ established at 77∙90°S, 24∙13°W (280 km south of Halley Bay). Topographic, geophysical, and geological surveys of Alexander Island, Foyn Coast, and Bowman Coast progressed. Mount Jackson (3184 m), highest peak on the Antarctic Peninsula, climbed by team led by John Crabbe Cunningham, 23 November 1964. Work in Dronning Maud Land continued; tellurometer survey of Tottanfjella completed and extended into Milorgfjella; geologists mapped Tottanfjella and Sivorgfjella, and worked throughout Heimefrontfjella. Shackleton with HMS Protector continued seismic survey of Bransfield Strait. Tractor party of 3 died in a crevasse on a traverse from ‘Halley’, 12 October 1965.

        

1964-65 British naval voyage

         Martin Spencer Ollivant  HMS Protector

         Visited Falkland Islands (including Beauchêne Island) and South Georgia (where the Joint Services Expedition was landed). Surveyed several parts of South Orkney Islands, Argentine Islands, and Hugo Island.

        

1964-65 British Joint Services Expedition to South Georgia

         Malcolm Keith Burley

         Mountaineering and surveying expedition, 14 November 1964 to 5 March 1965; climbed Mount Paget (2934 m, the highest peak), 30 December 1964, and Mount Sugartop (2323 m), crossed Allardyce Range, retraced Sir Ernest Shackleton’s trek (1914-16, q.v.), mapped Royal Bay (1 : 25 000 map published, 1966) and conducted geological, glaciological and biological investigations. Transported aboard HMS Protector.

        

1965-66 British Antarctic Survey

         Christopher David Walter (Deception Island)

         Terrence Henry Tallis (Stonington Island)

         David Lewis Hughes (Argentine Islands)

         John Rowland Brotherhood (Signy Island)

         George Montague Green (Adelaide Island)

         Paul Ian Whiteman (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1966 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         Thomas Woodfield RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Anders Jacobsen  Kista Dan

         Fossil Bluff station open for summer. Geological and topographic survey made of part of South Georgia. Dronning Maud Land work completed, observations from Heimefrontfjella linked to surveys of the Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1949-52). Party of 2, from Stonington Island, died of exposure, June 1966. ‘Hi-Fix’ satellite survey made the approaches to South Orkney Islands, Stonington Island, and Marguerite Bay. Geophysical investigation of the Scotia Ridge continued.

        

1965-66 United States Antarctic Research Program

         Frederick E. Bakutis (Commander; Naval Support Force, Antarctica)

         Justin L. Ballou (‘McMurdo’, Ross Island; Senior Naval Officer, 1966 winter)

         C. Raymond Johnstons (‘McMurdo’, Ross Island)

         Richard F. Przywitowski (‘Amundsen-Scott’, South Pole)

         Ronald F. Sefton (‘Byrd’, Rockefeller Plateau)

         Arthur S. Rundle (‘Palmer’, Anvers Island)

         Robert B. Flint (‘Plateau’, Dronning Maud Land)

         (Scientific Leaders for 1966 winter)

         R. P. Faughman   USS Glacier

         G. L. Gott       USS Burton Island

         J. S. Blake      USS Atka

         William Michael Benkert  USCGC Eastwind

         William C. Earl  USS Calcaterra

         R. W. Coulter    USS Alatna

         R. A. Wilson     USNS Private Frank J. Petrarca

         Allen W. Webb    USNS Private John R. Towle

         Clifford D. Henry        USS Wyandot

         Lawrence G. Wirth        USS Eltanin

         New inland station ‘Plateau’ established by air at 79∙25°S, 40∙50°E (3624 m elevation); traverse, led by E. Picciotto, travelled 1336 km from Pole of Inaccessibility to ‘Plateau’; Cape Hallett and ‘Little Jena’ (Ross Ice Shelf) stations operated during summer; ‘Eights’ station closed, 15 November 1965. Oceanographic research in the Scotia Sea region conducted from Eltanin; visited South Georgia, and Zavodovski Island and Southern Thule in South Sandwich Islands. VLF sub-station with a 21 km longwire antenna built in Marie Byrd Land. Naval Dakota aircraft crashed east of Roosevelt Island, February 1966, all 6 men aboard died; another man died in an accident at the South Pole, also February. Japanese party of 4, led by Tetsuya Torii, accompanied the expedition to continue work on the Dry Valleys Drilling Project.

        

1966 South Georgia; the land-based whaling industry finished; sealers Albatros, Dias, and Petrel were abandoned at their Grytviken moorings (first two sank during a severe blizzard, winter 1974). From its beginning, in 1904, 175 250 whales had been caught by shore stations and floating factories based on the island. Ragnor Thorsen, a caretaker, remained at Grytviken until 15 April 1971.

        

1966-67 British Antarctic Survey

         Phillip Geoffrey Hubert Myers (Deception Island)

         Ailstair Hugh McArthur (Stonington Island)

         Brian Swift (Argentine Islands)

         Edward Richard Hillier (Signy Island)

         Alec Bottomley (Adelaide Island)

         Eric James Chinn (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Leaders for summer and 1967 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         Thomas Woodfield RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Anders Jacobsen  Perla Dan

         Fossil Bluff station open for summer; new station constructed at Halley Bay. Magnetic and bathymetric survey of South Orkney Islands, Scotia Sea, and Bransfield Strait made from Shackleton in the eighth summer of the geophysical survey of the Scotia Ridge; the vessel sustained ice damage near South Orkney Islands. First air-borne radio-echo sounding of Antarctic ice conducted with Scott Polar Research Institute equipment. Reconnaissance from Halley Bay made of Theron Mountains (400 km south), stratigraphy and palaeomagnetism studied. HMS Puma called at South Georgia, October 1966.

        

1966-67 British naval voyage

         Sefton Ronald Sandford   HMS Protector

         Cape Kater survey completed, closing the last major gap in the triangulation of the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. An independent survey team, based on Robert Island, completed the survey of English Strait. Assistance provided to RRS Shackleton in seismic investigation near South Orkney Islands. At South Georgia visited and repaired Bird Island field station; made aerial reconnaissance of reindeer, seals, and penguins around the island. Recording seismograph recovered from Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands.

        

1966-67 British yacht cruise

         Harold William Tilman    Mischief

         Visited South Shetland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1966-67 Japanese fisheries voyage

         Yukiyasu Sasaki

         Keijirô Ozawa      Umitaka-maru (4th voyage)

         Tokyo University of Marine Science, Antarctic Ocean Research Expedition, worked in the region from 105°E to 175°W on the Southern Ocean; visited South Shetland Islands, South Georgia and Iles Kerguelen; investigating krill catching.

        

1967-68 British Antarctic Survey

         Alistair Hugh McArthur (Stonington Island)

         John Richard Dudeney (Argentine Islands)

         Douglas William Brown (Signy Island)

         David Stirling Parnell (Adelaide Island)

         Christopher Charles Robert Sykes (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1968 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         Roderic Bentley Ledingham (Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island;

         Officer-in-charge for summer and 1968 winter)

         Thomas Woodfield RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Anders Jacobsen  Perla Dan

         Field station at Fossil Bluff open throughout the year; Deception Island station evacuated after major volcanic eruptions, 4 and 7 December 1967; personnel taken aboard the Chilean vessel Piloto Pardo by helicopter; 2 volcanic vents and a new island were later examined. Teleprinter communications installed at Halley Bay and Argentine Islands. Shackleton continued geophysical investigations with assistance from HMS Protector. Traverse to the Shackleton Range made from Halley Bay but 720 km journey left little time for reconnaissance. United States LC-130 aircraft made a medical evacuation from Halley Bay to New Zealand, December 1967, and the Argentine naval icebreaker General San Martín (Aldo de Rosso) made another from the Argentine Islands station, 19 August 1968. [From 1967-68 the designation ‘Base Leader’ was changed to ‘Base Commander’, although the post remained civilian.]

        

1967-68 British botanical expedition

         Stanley Wilson Greene

         Five botanists from the University of Birmingham, sponsored jointly by the Royal Society and British Antarctic Survey, spent summer in South Georgia, in continuation of the International Biological Programme’s Bi-Polar Botanical Project, which also worked in Greenland.

        

1967-68 British naval voyage

         Peter Alexander Bence-Trower     HMS Protector

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and South Orkney Islands where surveyed the coasts of south and west sides of Signy Island. Also assisted RRS Shackleton in a seismic survey of the Scotia Sea.

        

1967-69 British and United States Geodetic Satellite Survey

         G. C. Nott-Bowers (in charge of operations [Britain])

         John H. King     FS216

         Members of British BC-4 Geodetic Satellite Survey Section and a United States technician were resident at King Edward Point, South Georgia, conducting observations for the survey, December 1967 to October 1969.

        

1968 Bahamas whaling voyage

         Knut B. Hansen   Run

         While whaling off Africa visited South Georgia; took 5 Elephant Seals for experimental purposes under licence from the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government. Visited several of the closed whaling stations. [The crew was Norwegian, the Bahamanian registration was one of convenience.]

        

1968 South Georgia; Christian Salvesen and Company (Britain) whale-catcher, Southern Foster, moored at Leith Harbour, broke adrift and was driven ashore at Jason Island becoming a total loss.

        

1968-69 British Antarctic Survey

         Shaun Michael Norman (Stonington Island)

         David Frederick Salter (Argentine Islands)

         Vaughan William Spaull (Signy Island)

         Ian Macdonald Willey (Adelaide Island)

         Peter David Clarkson (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1969 winter;

         appointed Magistrate by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Ian Andrew Sykes (Horseshoe Island)

         Andrew Chester Wager (Fossil Bluff; Alexander Island)

         (Officers-in-charge for summer and 1969 winter)

         Daniel Borland (King Edward Point, South Georgia;

         Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service)

         Thomas Woodfield and

         Maurice John Cole    RRS John Biscoe

         David Harrison Turnbull  RRS Shackleton

         Anders Jacobsen  Perla Dan

by a party from Stonington Island. Deception Island station reopened, volcanological and hydrographic surveys of the island made and the landing ground re-established, January 1969; seismic activity intensified and the station was evacuated (again by Piloto Pardo [Chile]) as further eruptions occurred in February, which damaged several buildings. A reconnaissance was made of the eruption in March. Topographic and geological mapping began in Shackleton Range from Halley Bay with transport provided by bulldozers and United States LC-130 aircraft. Shackleton completed about 14 000 km of parallel magnetic and bathymetric profiles of the Scotia Ridge (10th summer of this operation). Summer party reconstructed buildings at King Edward Point, South Georgia, to enlarge the research facilities.

        

1968-69 British naval voyage

         Peter William Buchanan   HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Orkney Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula; investigated Deception Island after volcanic eruption. Conducted hydrographic surveys of Potter Cove, Argentine Islands, and Biscoe Islands; trigonometrical station established on Hugo Island. [Endurance, formerly Anita Dan, replaced HMS Protector (1955-67) as guard ship for the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, and British Antarctic Territory; visits made to these regions annually until 1991 when replaced with another vessel bearing the same name.]

        

1969 South Georgia; following cessation of whaling from the island’s shore stations (1966, q.v.), the Falkland Islands Dependencies administrator was withdrawn from the island and administrative responsibilities transferred to the Base Commander of the British Antarctic Survey research station established at the settlement of King Edward Point, 13 November. The Base Commanders were appointed Magistrate by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government (see also 1982).

        

1969-70 British Antarctic Survey

         Anthony Norman Bushell (Stonington Island)

         Allan Richard Woods (Argentine Islands)

         Eric Laird Twelves (Signy Island)

         Richard Stephen Hesbrook (Adelaide Island)

         Charles Allen Clayton (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Eric James Chinn (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1970 winter; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         George William Field Kistruck (Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island;

         Officer-in-charge for 1970 winter)

         Maurice John Cole        RRS John Biscoe

         J. Gredsted      Perla Dan

         Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies and High Commissioner of British Antarctic Territory (Sir Cosmo Dugal Patrick Thomas Haskard) visited South Georgia and South Orkney Islands aboard John Biscoe. Anvers Island station open for summer as an air facility. New scientific station opened at the King Edward Point administrative settlement, South Georgia; continued meteorological observations, and began biological and ionospheric research. Geological investigation of Shackleton Range continued; glaciological examination of Alexander Island began and geophysical surveys extended to south-western end of George VI Sound. Radio-echo sounding of the ice of the Antarctic Peninsula, started in 1966-67, resumed with a total of 10 000 km of flight lines. Single- engine aircraft (De Havilland Turbo Beaver) flew to and from Canada to Anvers Island for field operations.

        

1969-70 British naval voyage

         Peter William Buchanan   HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia and South Shetland Islands; continued volcanological investigation of Deception Island; magnetic, gravity, and bathymetric survey made in eastern Scotia Sea using satellite navigation. Hydrographic surveys conducted off Signy Island, Wilhelm Archipelago, and Falkland Islands.

        

1970 Tourist cruises

         Lars-Eric Lindblad (voyage leader)

         Ludwig Gjesdal   Lindblad Explorer

         José Almejeiras Barrére    Río Tunuyán

         First was the start of a regular series of cruises by this 92 berth Norwegian registered vessel chartered by Lindblad Travel, New York; visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, Gough Island, and Tristan da Cunha during 3 cruises 24 January to 20 March; Robert Cushman Murphy was aboard and visited South Georgia where he had previously been in 1912-13 (q.v.). Second, from Argentina, made 2 cruises to the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands, January and February. [Lindblad Explorer was the first ship specifically designed for Antarctic tourist cruises.]

1970-71 Milton W. Weller of Iowa State University, United States, investigated ecological relationships of waterfowl in Falkland Islands and South Georgia, October 1970 to January 1971.

        

1970-71 British Antarctic Survey

         Phillip Wainwright (Stonington Island)

         Neil James Macpherson (Argentine Islands)

         Jeremy James Light (Signy Island)

         Richard Charlton Scoffom (Adelaide Island)

         Mark Vallance, (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Brian Jones (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1971 winter; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Richard Simon Walker (Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island;

         Officer-in-charge for summer and 1971 winter)

         Maurice John Cole        RRS John Biscoe

         Thomas Woodfield RRS Bransfield

         Anvers Island station open for summer. Cape Geddes (Laurie Island), ‘Shackleton’ (Common- wealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition), and some South Georgia whaling stations inspected. Geological survey of the Shackleton Range continued, partly in association with United States Antarctic Research Program. Further volcanological studies made of Deception Island; great changes found after the 1970 eruption. Snow chemistry studies began. Marine biological studies made from John Biscoe around South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, and the Elephant Island group. Study of South Georgia Reindeer and Bird Island Fur Seals began. Seven Soviet Union trawlers visited King Edward Point, South Georgia, owing to greatly increased fishing operations in the region. Argentine Air Force made a winter medical evacuation from Fossil Bluff, September 1971.

        

1970-71 Soviet Antarctic Expedition (SAE 16: 1970-72)

         Ivan Grigor’yevich Petrov (‘Molodezhnaya’, Enderby Land; in command of the expedition)

         Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Rogachev (‘Mirnyy’, Queen Mary Land)

         Vladimir L’vovich Ovsyannikov (‘Vostok’, South Geomagnetic Pole)

         Vladimir Aleksandrovich Spichkin (‘Novolazarevskaya’, Schirmacheroasen)

         Boris Mikhaylovich Belyayev (‘Bellingsgausen’, King George Island)

         Arnol’d Bogdanovich Budretskiy (‘Leningradskaya’, Oates Land)

         (Leaders for summer and 1971 winter)

         Eduard Iosifovich Kupri  Ob’

         Emmanuil Nikolayevich Troitskiy  Professor Vize

         Oktavian Vitol’dovich Andrzheyevskiy     Professor Zubov

         Yuriy P. Mochalov        Bobruyskles

         V. V. Sinel’nikov        El’brus

         ?      Akademik Knipovich

         ‘Leningradskaya’ open for winter. Headquarters of Soviet Union’s expeditions moved from ‘Mirnyy’ to ‘Molodezhnaya’. Winter fisheries and krill catching survey of the Scotia Sea began from Akademik Knipovich which visited South Georgia.

        

1970-72 French yacht cruise (from La Rochelle)

         Gérard Janichon and Jérôme Poncet    Damien

         After an Arctic cruise visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia (March 1971), Iles Kerguelen, Iles Crozet, Heard Island (January 1972), and Macquarie Island; continued to Tasmania.

        

1971-72 British Antarctic Survey

         Michael Raymond Pawley (Stonington Island)

         Anthony Keeley (Argentine Islands)

         Michael George Richardson (Signy Island)

         Frank Edward Lines (Adelaide Island)

         Andrew James Smith (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Jeremy Robin Biscoe Tallowin (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1972 winter; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Martin Robert Pearson (Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island;

         Officer-in-charge for summer and 1972 winter)

         Maurice John Cole        RRS John Biscoe

         Thomas Woodfield RRS Bransfield

         Station at Arthur Harbour (‘Base N’) open for summer but destroyed by fire, 28 December 1971; field station on Bird Island, South Georgia, open for summer; field huts built at Hodges Glacier (South Georgia) and Spartan Glacier (Alexander Island) for International Hydrological Programme research. Governor and High Commissioner, Ernest Gordon Lewis, inspected stations on the Antarctic Peninsula from Bransfield. Geomagnetic observatory established at King Edward Point. South Orkneys Benthic Survey began of marine organisms in the region. Netherlands film party, led by Rolf Orthel, landed at Ample Bay, Bay of Isles, South Georgia. Seismic and geophysical survey in Drake Passage conducted from Shackleton. [In 1972 the Survey had its largest number of wintering men, 101 on 6 bases.]

        

1971-72 British geophysics voyage

         George F. Selby-Smith    RRS Shackleton

         Natural Environment Research Council expedition continued the geophysical study of the Scotia Ridge, which included seismic refraction studies in cooperation with HMS Endurance. Reconn- aissance of South Georgia continental shelf and Drake Passage regions made. Biological and chemical projects included sampling of air and water for fluorocarbons.

        

1971-72 British naval voyage

         Ian Rodney Bowden        HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula. Assisted British Antarctic Survey with research for the International Hydrological Programme at South Georgia. Undertook a running survey of Adelaide Island and hydrographic survey of Marguerite Bay.

        

1971-72 Soviet Antarctic Expedition (SAE 17: 1971-73)

         Yevgeniy Sergeyevich Korotkevich (in command of summer operations)

         Vyacheslav Grigor’yevich Aver’yanov (‘Molodezhnaya’, Enderby Land;

         in command of winter operations)

         Nikolay Nikolayevich Ovchinnikov (‘Mirnyy’, Queen Mary Land)

         Vladimir Anatol’yevich Anan’yev (‘Vostok’, South Geomagnetic Pole)

         Vladilen Vasil’yevich Izmaylov (‘Novolazarevskaya’, Schirmacheroasen)

         Artur Nikolayevich Chilingarov (‘Bellingsgausen’, King George Island)

         Anatoliy Nikolayevich Vorob’yev (‘Leningradskaya’, Oates Land)

         (Leaders for summer and 1972 winter)

         Sergey Ivanovich Volkov  Ob’

         Yuriy Konstantinovich Karlov     Navarin

         Emmanuil Nikolayevich Troitskiy  Professor Vize

         Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Aristov Nadezhda Krupskaya

         ?      Akademik Knipovich

         Largest Soviet Union expedition to date, with scientists from several other countries represented. Summer station ‘Sodruzhestvo’ (69∙72°S, 73∙73°E) established on the Amery Ice Shelf, where a geophysical and geological survey was made. Geological and biological survey conducted of Macquarie Ridge. Fisheries and krill investigations in the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea continued from Akademik Knipovich which visited South Georgia. Polish scientific team of 5 men, led by Stanisl/aw Rakusa-Suszczewski, conducted ichthyological and other biological work during the summer. Five German (DDR) glaciologists and geophysicists, led by Klaus Dreβler, wintered at ‘Molo- dezhnaya’, investigated the Hayes Glacier; 2 surveyors repeated the determination of the position of ‘Vostok’.

        

1972 Tourist cruise

         Bjarne Aas       Lindblad Explorer

         United States chartered vessel made 2 cruises, visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia and South Shetland Islands; on second cruise ran aground in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, 11 February. Ninety passengers rescued by Chilean naval vessel Piloto Pardo and ship towed off by a contracted German (BRD) tug Arktis 18 days later.

        

1972 Soviet Union Antarctic Fishing Fleet formed; began catching krill, which were processed into a paste. Factory ship Vostok, accompanied by the whaling factory Sovietskaya Ukraina, with fleets of trawlers operated off Iles Kerguelen, South Georgia, in the Scotia Sea and other areas. These fleets operated in Antarctic regions during subsequent summers; they also took and processed increasing quantities of fish and, later, squid. An oil bunkering depot was established on King George Island.

        

1972-73 British Antarctic Survey

         Steven Wormald (Stonington Island)

         Kenneth Wilson Hughson (Argentine Islands)

         David Donald William Fletcher (Signy Island)

         Kevin James Roberts (Adelaide Island)

         Roger Daynes (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Andrew Stuart Ferguson (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1973 winter; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Andrew William Jamieson (Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island;

         Officer-in-charge for summer and 1973 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps     RRS John Biscoe

         Thomas Woodfield RRS Bransfield

         Field stations on Bird Island and Hodges Glacier (South Georgia), and Spartan Glacier (Alexander Island) open for summer. New station [III] built at Halley Bay; aircraft reached it from Antarctic Peninsula stations. Geological reconnaissance began on Annenkov Island and other parts of South Georgia; inspection of volcanism made at Deception Island. Large increase in Fur Seal numbers (over 200 000) found on Bird Island. John Biscoe continued South Orkney and began South Georgia Benthic Survey. Launch, Yoldia, sent to South Georgia but sank at King Edward Point. Medical evacuation made from Stonington Island by aircraft in cooperation with the Argentine Air Force, October 1972.

        

1972-73 British naval voyage

         Christopher John Isacke  HMS Endurance

         Continued hydrographic survey of the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands region, worked with RRS John Biscoe in Marguerite Bay. Fixed positions of Clerke Rocks, Shag Rocks and Black Rock by satellite observations, landings were made on the first 2, geological and biological specimens were collected. Deployed field huts on South Georgia for British Antarctic Survey. Around the Falkland Islands conducted a 6300 km magnetic survey.

        

1972-73 French yacht cruise (from La Rochelle)

         Gérard Janichon and Jérôme Poncet    Damien

         Left Tasmania; visited Antarctic Peninsula, Adelaide Island, South Shetland Islands, and South Georgia.

        

1973 South Georgia; Verner Duncan Carse visited the island to retrace and film Shackleton’s trek (1914-16, q.v.), 17 December, from HMS Endurance. His camp was destroyed by very severe weather and he embarked on RRS John Biscoe at King Haakon Bay.

        

1973-74 British Antarctic Survey

         Graham Kenneth Wright ■ (Stonington Island)

         Alexander Gibson Scott ■ (Argentine Islands)

         David Donald William Fletcher and Eric Kenneth Prentice Back ■ (Signy Island)

         Steven Wormald and Kevin James Roberts ■ (Adelaide Island)

         Brian Jones ■ (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Michael Raymond Pawley ■ (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1974 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         James Francis Bishop (Fossil Bluff; Alexander Island

         Officer-in-charge for summer and 1974 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps     RRS John Biscoe

         Thomas Woodfield RRS Bransfield

         Field station on Bird Island, South Georgia, occupied for the summer; Shackleton station, Vahsel Bay inspected; Spartan Glacier field station occupied for much of the year. New Halley Bay station [3] opened, although collapse of ice cliffs on to Bransfield delayed construction; former station closed. South Georgia Benthic Survey conducted around the main island and off Annenkov Island. Magnetic and seismic observatory established on Barff Peninsula, South Georgia. Extensive series of flights for geomagnetic studies made over the Antarctic Peninsula. [Headquarters Base Commanders were appointed at some stations from this summer; they generally arrived with the earliest ship and departed with the last of the season (except for Halley Bay, where there was only one visit).]

        

1973-74 British geophysics voyage

         George H. Selby-Smith    RRS Shackleton

         Continued survey in the Scotia Sea, conducted site surveys for Glomar Challenger deep-sea drilling programme. Made a geophysical reconnaissance of the Weddell Sea; visited South Georgia.

        

1973-74 British naval voyage

         Christopher John Isacke  HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands; continued to South Georgia with the Governor, Ernest Gordon Lewis, aboard; assisted British Antarctic Survey field parties on the island and used helicopters for extensive aerial photographic survey. Magnetometer traces made across the Scotia Sea and west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, and magnetometer measurements taken on Deception Island, Argentine Islands, and South Georgia (Barff Peninsula). Hydrographic survey continued in Marguerite Bay.

        

1973-74 Italian yacht cruise (from Anzio)

         Giovanni Ajmone Cat      San Giuseppe Due

         Called at Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, several sites on west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, Signy Island in South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia.

        

1974-75 British Antarctic Survey

         Jeremy Hugh Carter ■ (Argentine Islands)

         David Donald William Fletcher and Herbert John Graham Dartnall ■ (Signy Island)

         Steven Wormald and Ernest Brian Sheldon ■ (Adelaide Island)

         Eric Kenneth Prentice Back ■ (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Michael Raymond Pawley and John Hall ■ (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1975 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Jonathan Launcelot William Walton (Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island;

         Officer-in-charge for 1975 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps     RRS John Biscoe

         Stuart James Lawrence    RRS Bransfield

         Stonington Island station closed at the end of summer; reconnaissance for a new scientific station and airstrip near Rothera Point, Adelaide Island began. Geological investigation of south-west South Georgia made with assistance from HMS Endurance; radio-echo soundings made of ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula from 62°S to 75°S, inland boundary of Ronne Ice Shelf delineated. Geophysicists and geologists made several landings in South Shetland Islands. Bathymetric profiling with satellite positions across the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea undertaken from Bransfield. Combined United States and British glaciological survey of the Ross Ice Shelf conducted. Party retraced Sir Ernest Shackleton’s trek between King Haakon Bay and Stromness Bay (1914-16, q.v.), across South Georgia during winter.

        

1974-75 British naval voyage

         Noel Bearne      HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Sandwich Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, and South Georgia. Assisted a British Antarctic Survey geological investigation on South Georgia and destroyed an explosives depot at Grytviken whaling station; conducted a bathymetric survey off the south-east of the island in cooperation with John Biscoe. Made an extensive series of air photographs of South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Liège Island, and Brabant Island. Helicopter landing made on Shag Rocks, for geological collections, 4 December 1974.

        

1974-75 Tourist cruises

         José Luis Arria Balaga    Cabo San Roque

         Hasse Nilsson    Lindblad Explorer

         George Nicolaou  Regina Prima

         First, from Spain, visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula. Second, from United States, made 4 cruises; visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula region. Third, a chartered Italian liner, under a Panamanian flag, made 7 visits to South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula, 27 December 1975 to 5 March 1976.

        

1975 Falkland Islands Dependencies Government passed the Falkland Islands Dependencies Con- servation Ordinance, 19 February. This covered South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, and Shag Rocks; Specially Protected Areas, Sites of Special Scientific Interest, and Areas of Special Tourist Interest were established. [The Ordinance consolidated several previous ones.]

        

1975-76 British Antarctic Survey

         Steven Wormald and Robin Albert Davies ■ (Adelaide Island)

         Brian Goodale ■ (Argentine Islands)

         David Donald William Fletcher and Colin Stewart Maiden ■ (Signy Island)

         Ernest Brian Sheldon ■ (Rothera Point, Adelaide Island)

         Ernest Alfred Thornley ■ (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Michael Raymond Pawley and David Michael Burkitt ■ (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1976 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps   RRS Bransfield

         First phase of new station at Rothera Point (‘Base R’) completed and landing ground established there; another landing ground established near Damoy Point, Wiencke Island with refuge hut (used for conveying men from ships farther south with aircraft). Field stations occupied for summer at Spartan Glacier, Fossil Bluff (Alexander Island); Bird Island, Dartmouth Point, and Elsehul (South Georgia). Halley Bay relief was exceptionally difficult, Bransfield had to moor 64 km away. Geological field parties operated at north-western end of South Georgia, discovered a population of mice at Shallop Cove. Geological field parties operated at South Shetland Islands. Ships continued investigations of the Scotia Ridge. Aircraft flew extensive magnetometer traces over southern Antarctic Peninsula and Alexander Island in cooperation with United States Geological Survey geoceiver programme. British Broadcasting Corporation team accompanied John Biscoe spending 3 months filming. Geological field party retraced Sir Ernest Shackleton’s trek between King Haakon Bay and Fortuna Bay (1914-16, q.v.), across South Georgia during summer. Party of 3, from Argentine Islands station, died on Mount Peary, 3 September 1976.

1975-76 British geophysics voyage

         Phillip Warne    RRS Shackleton

         University of Birmingham party continued the survey in the Scotia Sea, main activities were around South Orkney Islands and near South Georgia. The programme was curtailed when the Argentine naval vessel Almirante Storni opened fire on the ship (1976, q.v.).

        

1975-76 British naval voyage

         Noel Bearne      HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula; assisted with deployment of aircraft radio beacon at Rothera Point by British Antarctic Survey and surveyed the approaches to the station. Carried Edward Arthur Alexander Shackleton (Lord Shackleton) to South Georgia to undertake an economic survey (1976, q.v.). Deployed a recording seismograph station on Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands.

        

1975-76 German (BRD) fisheries voyage

         Gotthilf Hempel, Dietrich Sahrhage, and Schreiber Steinberg (Scientific Leaders)

         Theodore Frerichs and

         Edwin Littkemann       Walther Herwig

         F. Baltrusch     Weser

         Investigated krill and fish biology, and resources off South Georgia and in the Scotia Sea.

        

1975-76 Tourist cruises

         Hasse Nilsson    Lindblad Explorer

         George Nicolaou  Regina Prima

         Lindblad Explorer, from United States, visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula. Regina Prima, a chartered Italian liner, under a Panamanian flag, made 6 visits to South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula, 16 December 1975 to 6 March 1976.

        

1976 Economic Survey of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Britain); Committee, chaired by Edward Arthur Alexander Shackleton (Lord Shackleton), made a detailed socio-economic survey of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, January to March. Lord Shackleton visited South Georgia aboard HMS Endurance in the course of this. A comprehensive report with many recommendations resulted [see also a second report in 1982].

        

1976-77 Argentine expedition

         Gustavo Richardson (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Rodolfo Jorge González Moreno (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Alberto Hipólito Acevedo (‘General Belgrano’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         Carlos Lavarias (‘Petrel’, Dundee Island)

         Carlos Alberto Fernandez (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         Anselmo Ramón Aguilera (‘Vicecomodoro Marambio’, Seymour Island)

         José Bilbao Richter (‘General San Martín’, Marguerite Bay)

         (Commanders for summer and 1977 winter)

         Isidoro Antonio Paradelo (in command of naval operations)

         Alberto L. Padilla       General San Martín

         César Trombetta   Bahía Aguirre

         Carlos A. Coli   Francisco de Gurruchaga

         Gustavo R. Grunschlager  Candido de Lasala

         Eduardo Gastón Lestrade   Islas Orcadas

         Peri-Antarctic oceanographic voyage, in coordination with United States Antarctic Research Program, conducted from Islas Orcadas. Helicopters crashed on Seymour Island, 5 December 1976, and on Livingston Island, 10 January 1977; 3 men died in each. Naval station established on Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands, 7 November 1976, and occupied for summer. [This station was in the Falkland Islands Dependencies without authorization by their government; a diplomatic protest was delivered to the Argentine Government by the British Ambassador, 19 January 1977 (see also 1982).] Italian summer station, ‘Conca Italia’, on King George Island demolished (without Italian consent). Antarctic Treaty inspection of ‘Palmer’ station conducted.

        

1976-77 British Antarctic Survey

         Eric Kenneth Prentice Back ■ (Argentine Islands)

         David Donald William Fletcher and John Cynan Ellis-Evans ■ (Signy Island)

         Steven Wormald and Godfrey Andrew Holden ■ (Rothera Point, Adelaide Island)

         Kenneth Charles Lax ■ (Halley Bay, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Michael Raymond Pawley and David John Orchard ■ (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1977 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps   RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Field stations open for summer at Fossil Bluff (Alexander Island), Bird Island and Elsehul (South Georgia). Second phase of construction of Rothera Point station completed and station became centre for air operations. Prospect Point station open during summer for International Magnetosphere Study. Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio experimental hut at Halley Bay destroyed by fire and unmanned VLF station deployed 120 km south for summer. Geochronological and geochemical sampling programme began in South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula. Series of reference sites established on South Georgia for intensive terrestrial research. Geological survey made in South Orkney Islands in cooperation with United States Antarctic Research Program. Magnetic profile of 6500 km in the Scotia Sea made from Bransfield which also visited Beauchêne Island. The Survey also participated in the Ross Ice Shelf Project with United States Antarctic Research Program.

        

1976-77 British naval voyage

         Derek Alan Wallis        HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, and South Georgia. Transported ‘Joint Services Expedition’ to Elephant Island. Took an extensive series of air photographs at selected areas of South Georgia where landed field parties on the coast and on Annenkov Island; conducted a hydrographic survey off Rothera Point; magnetic and bathymetric profiles in the Scotia Sea.

        

1976-77 Tourist cruise

         Hasse Nilsson    Lindblad Explorer

         United States chartered vessel started from Cape Town and made 4 cruises; visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula.

        

1977-78 Argentine expedition

         Jorge Luis Laboro (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Samuel Ikonicoff (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Héctor Raúl Papa (‘General Belgrano’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         Ignacio Carro (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         Ricardo Abel D’Onofrio (‘Vicecomodoro Marambio’, Seymour Island)

         Julio Vicente Fuscaldo (‘Primavera’, Hughes Bay)

         Gustavo Federico Giménez (‘General San Martín’, Marguerite Bay)

         Guillermo Escorihuela (‘Corbeta Uruguay’, South Sandwich Islands)

         (Commanders for summer and 1978 winter)

         Carlos Alberto Barros (in command of naval operations)

         Jorge Fausto Newton      General San Martín

         Guillermo Estrada        Bahía Aguirre

         Ricardo Horacio Aumann   Francisco de Gurruchaga

         Mario A. Brusa   Candido de Lasala

         Jorge Horacio Badaroux   Islas Orcadas

         ‘Corbeta Uruguay’ station, South Sandwich Islands, open for winter; ‘Primavera’ station established at Hughes Bay; ‘Petrel’ station, Dundee Island, closed. Emilio Marcos Palma, born 7 January 1978 at Argentine army station at Hope Bay, announced as ‘first Argentine Antarctic citizen’ [his mother, 7 months pregnant, had been flown to the station in November for the event]; a marriage was also celebrated at the station. Rocketry programme for atmospheric studies between 25 and 60 km altitudes began at ‘ Marambio’ and ‘Belgrano’ stations. British Antarctic Survey aircraft made a medical evacuation from ‘Belgrano’ to ‘Marambio’ station, November 1977. Oceanographic investigations in the Scotia Sea, with United States Antarctic Research Program, continued from Islas Orcadas.

        

1977-78 British Antarctic Survey

         Michael John Smith ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         John Hall and David Michael Rootes ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         David Donald William Fletcher and Eric Kenneth Prentice Back ■

         (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Miles Vernon Mosley ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Michael Raymond Pawley and Martin John Baker ■ (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1978 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Stuart James Lawrence and

         Maurice John Cole      RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps   RRS John Biscoe

         Summer field stations operated at Fossil Bluff and Spartan Glacier (Alexander Island), Adelaide Island, Damoy Point (Wiencke Island), Bird Island and Schlieper Bay (South Georgia). Offshore Biological Programme inaugurated near South Georgia, February to March 1978. (Thirty-five German (DDR), Polish, and Soviet Union trawlers were reported working near South Georgia during this summer.) Three men of a geological party making a summer reconnaissance survey of the Shackleton Range wintered at Argentine ‘General Belgrano’ station. Aeromagnetic flights continued over the Antarctic Peninsula and geoceiver ground control extended to ‘Siple’, ‘Halley’, Theron Mountains, South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, and South Shetland Islands; gravity readings taken at several of these stations. Palaeontological team worked in the Sweeney Mountains with United States scientists. The Survey’s logistical and communications station at Stanley, Falkland Islands, closed; a representative’s office was maintained. Extensive demolition programme of many government buildings at King Edward Point undertaken. [The stations were given specific names from this summer. That at South Georgia was termed ‘Grytviken’; owing to confusion with the whaling station of that name the designation King Edward Point is retained here.]

        

1977-78 British naval voyage

         Derek Alan Wallis        HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands thence to South Georgia with the Governor, James Roland Walter Parker, aboard and continued aerial photographic surveys of selected places; participated in search for En Avant; visited South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula. Conducted a geodetic survey of region of James Ross Island and Joinville Island.

        

1977-78 German (BRD) fisheries voyage

         Gotthilf Hempel, Dietrich Sahrhage, and Schreiber Steinberg (Scientific Leaders)

         Theodore Frerichs and

         Edwin Littkemann       Walther Herwig

         H. Polley        Julius Foch

         Visited area around South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, the Scotia Sea and Bellingshausen Sea investigating krill and fish resources.

        

1977-78 German (DDR) fisheries voyage

         S. Holzlöhner (Scientific Leader)

         ?      Bernhard Kellermann

         Investigated fish and krill biology and catching techniques off South Georgia and South Orkney Islands, December 1977 to February 1978.

        

1977-78 Japanese krill catching voyage

         Keniji Nasu (Chief Scientist)

         Kouhei Sawamura  Banshû-maru 2

         Satory Nakamura (Chief Scientist)

         Kazuhito Ohkubo  Ohtsu-maru

         Japanese Marine Fishery Resources Research Centre vessels, with a fleet of 10 trawlers, continued experimental krill catching off Wilkes Land. [Similar voyages, using various vessels, were also made in the 1978-79 (off Wilkes Land and in Ross Sea), 1979-80 (off Enderby Land and in Bellingshausen Sea), 1980-81 (off Antarctic Peninsula and Marie Byrd Land), 1981-82 (off South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands), 1982-83 (off South Shetland Islands and South Georgia), and 1983-84 (off South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands).]

        

1977-78 Polish fisheries voyage

         Zbigniew Ziembo (Chief Scientist)

         Jan Sokol/owski  Profesor Bogucki

         Kazimierz Kopanski      Sagitta

         Kazimierz Augustyniak    Manta

         Tadeusz Brzezinski      Sirius

         Zbigniew Dzwonkowski     Gemini

         Potential fishing grounds and krill resources around Antarctica and south of New Zealand investigated from Profesor Bogucki and Sagitta. Fisheries surveys near Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Enderby Land conducted from Manta. Gemini and Sirius monitored fishing grounds off South Georgia and South Orkney Islands.

        

1977-79 French yacht cruise

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II

         Visited the Antarctic Peninsula and wintered on Avian Island; continued to South Shetland Islands and South Georgia, where a child, Dion Michael Poncet, was born on 15 March 1979 (registered as Falkland Islands Dependencies birth 13); thence visited Falkland Islands.

        

1978 South African naval voyage (from Simon’s Town)

         Cornelius Jan Hendrik Wagenveld  SAS Protea

         Visited Falkland Islands, Gerlache Strait, South Shetland Islands, and South Georgia; conducted hydrographic and oceanographic studies, particularly concerned with krill, 10 February to 21 April.

        

1978-79 Argentine expedition

         Eduardo E. Nasine (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Walter Mersing (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         José Conrado Antonioni (‘General Belgrano’, Filchner Ice Shelf)

         Juan Carlos Videla (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         Juan Carlos Fernandez (‘Vicecomodoro Marambio’, Seymour Island)

         Miguel Felipe Perandones (‘Primavera’, Hughes Bay)

         Guillermo Jorge Laborde (‘General San Martín’, Marguerite Bay)

         Anibal E. Estevez (‘Corbeta Uruguay’, South Sandwich Islands)

         (Commanders for summer and 1979 winter)

         Alberto Oscar Casellas (in command of naval operations)

         Adolfo Arduino   General San Martín

         Nestor Carbonetti        Bahía Aguirre

         Pedro Luis Galazi        Francisco de Gurruchaga

         Antonio L. Faure Islas Orcadas

         Construction of a new of ‘Belgrano’ station began at Bertrab Nunatak, Luitpold Coast. Nine wives and 17 children of station personnel installed in ‘married quarters’ at ‘Esperanza’; several births and marriages followed. A series of surveys prospecting for economic minerals began by Fabricaciones Militares on the Antarctic Peninsula. Three men died in a helicopter crash on Smith Island. Islas Orcadas operated in Drake Passage, north Weddell Sea, and Scotia Sea in cooperation with United States Antarctic Program.

        

1978-79 British Antarctic Survey

         Michael John Smith and John William Nutt ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         John Hall and George Ryans Hawthorn ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         David Donald William Fletcher and John Alexander Jewell ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Peter Richard Witty ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Michael Raymond Pawley and Mark Peter David Lewis ■

         (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1979 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps     RRS John Biscoe

         Stuart James Lawrence and

         Maurice John Cole      RRS Bransfield

         Field stations on Bird Island (South Georgia), Fossil Bluff (Alexander Island) and Hope Bay occupied for summer. Geological and glaciological investigation of Alexander Island and Ellsworth Mountains conducted. Trawlers reported operating during every month of the year off South Georgia.

        

1978-79 British naval voyage

         James Trevor Lord        HMS Endurance

         Conducted reconnaissance survey of south-west of Adelaide Island; took vertical air photographs of South Shetland Islands and Melchior Islands. Governor of Falkland Islands Dependencies and High Commissioner of British Antarctic Territory, James Roland Walter Parker, was aboard for visits to South Georgia, South Orkney Islands and Antarctic Peninsula.

        

1978-79 Yacht cruises

         Jacques Peignon  Champi (France)

         Jean Lescure     Isatis (France)

         Oleg Bely        Kotick (France)

         Willy de Roos    Williwaw (Belgium)

         Williwaw and Isatis visited the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands; Champi continued thence to South Georgia which Kotick visited.

        

1979 South Georgia; Christian Salvesen and Company (Britain) purchased the leases of Husvik and Grytviken whaling stations from Albion Star (Falkland Islands), August. Salvesen’s company already had the leases for Prince Olav Harbour, Leith and Stromness whaling stations. These 5 leases were held against the eventuality of resuming whaling or beginning another commercial operation from the island. A contract was exchanged with Constantino Sergio Davidoff (Argentina) to salvage materials from these whaling stations, under specified conditions, 19 September. [See 1982 for some developments from the contract and 1992 for relinquishment of the leases.]

        

1979-80 Argentine expedition

         Miguel A. Pereyra (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Fernando Hipólito Turrado (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Luis Antonio Zbucki and Carlos Alberto Retamozo (‘General Belgrano II and III’,

         Luitpold Coast [combined station])

         Marcos Alberto Calmón (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         Carlos Alberto Gut (‘Vicecomodoro Marambio’, Seymour Island)

         Agusto César Buraschi (‘Primavera’, Hughes Bay)

         Manuel Bautista Ceñal (‘General San Martín’, Marguerite Bay)

         Omar A. Galliussi (‘Corbeta Uruguay’, South Sandwich Islands)

         (Commanders for summer and 1980 winter)

         Alberto Máximo D’Agostino (in command of naval operations)

         Alejandro José Giusti     Almirante Irízar

         Héctor E. Moreno  Bahía Aguirre

         Miguel A. Piccinini      Francisco de Gurruchaga

         ‘General Belgrano II’ (Army) and ‘General Belgrano III’ (Navy) stations open on Bertrab Nunatak; conservation programme began of the Swedish hut on Snow Hill Island (Nils Otto Gustaf Nordenskjöld, 1901-03, q.v.). One man died in an accident at ‘Belgrano’, 22 January 1980.

        

1979-80 British Antarctic Survey

         Martin John Baker ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         David Michael Rootes ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         Michael Colin Sharp and Alan James McManus ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Miles Vernon Mosley and Jack Scotcher ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Michael Raymond Pawley and Derek William Hamilton ■

         (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1980 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Field stations open in summer on Bird Island and Schlieper Bay (South Georgia), and Fossil Bluff (Alexander Island). Mosley was fatally injured in an accident with an aircraft, 2 February 1980, and Scotcher was appointed Base Commander at ‘Halley’. ‘Faraday’ station rebuilt and new aqueduct installed for King Edward Point. Bransfield struck uncharted rocks off Adelaide Island, 27 March 1980, and was unable to relieve Signy Island thus 7 men spent an additional winter there. Second Offshore Biological Programme voyage made near South Georgia by John Biscoe refitted with trawling equipment and laboratory facilities. United States Antarctic Program personnel cooperated in ornithological and seal investigations from Bird Island.

        

1979-80 British naval voyage

         James Trevor Lord        HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula; the Governor and High Commissioner, James Roland Walter Parker, was aboard for some of the voyages; assisted relief of RRS Bransfield after ship grounded off Adelaide Island.

        

1979-80 German (BRD) expeditions

         Franz Tessensohn (Scientific Leader)

         Udo Rieck        Schepelstrum

         Heinz Kohnen (Scientific Leader)

         Magnar Aklestad  Polarsirkel

         Karl-Heinz Koch (Scientific Leader)

         Heinz Wichels    Explora

         Three separate expeditions visited Victoria Land (Ganovex I expedition), South Georgia and the Weddell Sea (landed on the Filchner Ice Shelf to assess it as a station site); and the Bellingshausen Sea and Ross Sea. The first established a summer station, ‘Lillie-Marleen’, at the base of Lillie Glacier (71∙20°S, 154∙52°E).

        

1979-80 North Coast of South Georgia Expedition (Britain)

         Edwin Michelburgh and David Matthews

         Private expedition visited Elsehul, Prince Olav Harbour, Stromness Bay, King Edward Cove, and elsewhere on South Georgia, preparing documentary photographs of the island. Logistic assistance provided by British Antarctic Survey.

        

1979-80 Tourist cruises

         Lars-Erik Granquist      Lindblad Explorer

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

         Former visited the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands. Latter visited Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Falkland Islands, South Georgia, Peter I o/y, Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, Macquarie Island, and Auckland Islands. Lindblad Explorer went aground on rocks off Wiencke Island, 24 December 1979, hull punctured; complement rescued aboard Piloto Pardo (Chile) and vessel by tug Uragan (Soviet Union); Japanese company aboard produced a film including scenes from the Antarctic Peninsula [Virus].

        

1979-80 Yacht cruises

         Bertrand Dubois  Basile (France)

         Charles Ferchaud Momo (France)

         Basile visited South Georgia, trekked in several areas and made the second ascent of Mount Paget, continued to Gough Island and Cape Town. Momo visited the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands, South Georgia, and Gough Island.

1980 British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, published The history of the place names in the Falkland Islands Dependencies (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands), edited by Geoffrey Francis Hattersley-Smith.

        

1980 Argentine flight; a Hercules aircraft, commanded by Eduardo Senn, flew from Río Gallegos over South Georgia to Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands, and returned over the South Orkney Islands, 27 September, taking aerial photographs and dropping mail for the Argentine stations. [Similar flights were made in 1981 and early 1982.]

        

1980 German (DDR) fisheries voyage

         Günter Gubsch (Scientific Leader)

         ?      Werner Kube

         Investigated distribution of fish and krill off the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands, South Georgia, and Bouveto/ya, February to April.

        

1980-81 Argentine expedition

         Juan Carlos Diez (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Daniel Zatz (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Jorge Antonio Fernandez and Hugo Carlos Casela

         (‘General Belgrano II and III’, Luitpold Coast [combined station])

         Héctor Fructuoso Funes (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         Leonidas Aldo Loza (‘Vicecomodoro Marambio’, Seymour Island)

         Juan Carlos Carrizo (‘Primavera’, Hughes Bay)

         Héctor Luis Davel (‘General San Martín’, Marguerite Bay)

         Carlos Alberto Pereyra (‘Corbeta Uruguay’, South Sandwich Islands)

         (Commanders for summer and 1981 winter)

         César Trombetta (in command of naval operations)

         Ricardo Luis Davila      Bahía Aguirre

         Vicente Manuel Federici  Almirante Irízar

         ?      Iokim Vatsiyetis

         ?      Antártida

         First ‘Belgrano’ station closed, second and third operated through winter. Krill investigations in the Scotia Sea and near South Shetland Islands conducted from Iokim Vatsiyetis and Antártida.

        

1980-81 British Antarctic Survey

         Martin John Baker and Christopher David Jeffes ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         David Michael Rootes and Neil Anthony Fitch ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         David Donald William Fletcher and Mark Peter David Lewis ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Peter John Gibbs ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Peter Richard Witty and Stephen John Martin ■ (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1981 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Field stations on Bird Island (South Georgia) and Fossil Bluff (Alexander Island) open for summer. Royal Engineers party reconstructed jetty at King Edward Point. John Biscoe fractured a propeller and was towed to port by HMS Endurance (the longest tow in peacetime by a vessel other than a tug). British Broadcasting Corporation television crew accompanied the voyage of Bransfield. Two men, from ‘Rothera’ died in a crevasse, 16 May 1981.

        

1980-81 British geophysics voyage

         ?      RRS Shackleton

         University of Birmingham conducted geophysical investigation of the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea, ship visited South Georgia and Falkland Islands.

        

1980-81 British naval voyage

         Nicholas John Barker     HMS Endurance

         Visited the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, and Weddell Sea; in latter assisted in an inves- tigation of iceberg dynamics. Towed RRS John Biscoe from Falkland Islands to Uruguay after latter fractured a propeller. Surveyed Marguerite Bay. The Governor of the Falkland Islands Dependencies and High Commissioner for British Antarctic Territory, James Roland Walter Parker, was aboard for a voyage from Stanley.

        

1980-81 German (BRD) expeditions

         Ekkehard Müller-Heiden (‘Georg von Neumayer’, Ekströmisen;

         Leader for summer and 1981 winter)

         B. Zeitzschel, Sebastian Gerlach, and Gotthilf Hempel (Scientific Leaders)

         Walter Feldmann  Meteor

         Gotthilf Hempel, Manfred Stein, and Karl-Heinz Koch (Scientific Leaders)

         Edwin Littkemann Walther Herwig

         Heinz Kohnen (Scientific Leader)

         Magnar Aklestad  Polarsirkel

         Ewald Heinrich Brune     Gotland II

         M. Boese Titan

         Attempt to establish a station on the Filchner Ice Shelf prevented by sea-ice. ‘Georg von Neumayer’ station established at 70∙62°S, 08∙37°W in Dronning Maud Land; meteorological, geophysical, atmospheric, and biological studies began with field programmes in geology, glaciology, surveying, and biology. Meteor and Walther Herwig involved in ‘Biological Investigations of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks’ programmes in the Scotia Sea; visited South Georgia. Geological and petrological survey made of northern Victoria Land; logistic assistance provided by United States Antarctic Program.

        

1980-81 United States Antarctic Program

         Edward P. Todd (Program Director, National Science Foundation)

         Jare Max Pearigen (Commander; Naval Support Force, Antarctica)

         A. D. Bernhart (‘McMurdo’, Ross Island; Senior Naval Officer, 1981 winter)

         C. Thomas Plyler (‘Amundsen-Scott’, South Pole)

         Donald Wiggin (‘Palmer’, Anvers Island)

         (Leaders for 1981 winter)

         James W. Coste   USCGC Glacier

         Thomas C. Volkle USCGC Polar Star

         Pieter J. Lenie  Hero

         Albert A. Arsenhault and

         Robert W. Haines       Melville

         Bjo/rn J. Werring        USNS Southern Cross

         Henry H. Church  USNS Maumee

         ‘Siple’ station, Ellsworth Land, closed for winter after joint United States, Norwegian and British summer rocketry investigation of the magnetosphere. Melville collected seabed samples, made a geophysical examination of the Scotia Sea region, and participated in ‘Biological Investigations of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks’ programmes (detected a 106 tonne krill swarm; 35 Soviet Union trawlers were catching this). New astronomical telescope added to observatory at South Pole. Seven thermo-nuclear power sources were used in meteorological stations and for aurora observ- atories (similar small generators have subsequently been used to supply electricity at several remote sites). Glacier and Polar Sea visited Campbell Island; Hero visited South Georgia. Antarctic Treaty inspection of 6 stations conducted.

        

1980-81 Tourist cruises

         Hasse Nilsson    Lindblad Explorer

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

         Both vessels made 4 cruises; World Discoverer visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, Commonwealth Bay, Macquarie Island, and Campbell Island; Lindblad Explorer visited Ile Saint- Paul, Bouveto/ya (only 3 landed, 16 December 1980) Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands (no landings made owing to weather), Antarctic Peninsula, Peter I o/y, Ross Sea, Commonwealth Bay, Balleny Islands, Macquarie Island, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, and The Snares.

        

1980-81 Yacht cruises

         Henri Goiot      Delphine (France)

         Brian Harrison   Dione (Britain)

         Jean Lescure     Isatis II (France)

         Yves Beulac      Shieldaig (France)

         Dione and Isatis visited the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands; Shieldaig South Georgia; Delphine Ile Saint-Paul and Ile Amsterdam.

        

1980-82 French yacht cruise

         Daniel Gazanion  Kim

         Visited the Antarctic Peninsula and wintered on Petermann Island; continued to South Shetland Islands and South Georgia.

        

1981 Argentine flight; a Hercules aircraft, commanded by Rubén H. Cabanillas, flew from Río Gallegos over South Georgia and to Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands, 2 August, taking aerial photographs.

        

1981-82 British Broadcasting Corporation team, led by Christopher Ralling, visited ‘Scott Base’, Ross Island, and South Georgia to obtain film and details for a documentary film about Sir Ernest Shackleton.

1981-82 Argentine expedition

         Mario Huiici (‘Orcadas’, Laurie Island)

         Rubén Sanso (‘Almirante Brown’, Paradise Harbour)

         Leopoldo Diamante Díaz and Eduardo Ezequiel Alonso

         (‘General Belgrano II and III’, Luitpold Coast, [combined station])

         José Bilbao Richter (‘Esperanza’, Hope Bay)

         Oscar Emilio Quinteros (‘Vicecomodoro Marambio’, Seymour Island)

         Luis Alberto Herrera (‘General San Martín’, Marguerite Bay)

         Francisco Martínez (‘Teniente Jubany’, King George Island)

         (Commanders for summer and 1982 winter)

         César Trombetta (in command of naval operations)

         Oscar Julio Barquin      Almirante Irízar

         Ismael Jorge García       Bahía Paraíso

         Osvaldo M. Niella        Bahía Buen Suceso

         ‘Jubany’ station, Potter Cove, King George Island, open for winter; ‘Primavera’, ‘Teniente Cámara’, and ‘Decepción’ open for summer; ‘Corbeta Uruguay’ station, Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands, surrendered by Enrique Peralta Martínez and closed on 20 June 1982 by the Royal Navy following its use in the invasion of South Georgia. Almirante Irízar covertly visited Stromness Bay, South Georgia, ostensibly on behalf of Constantino Sergio Davidoff’s salvage contract, 20 December 1981. Bahía Paraíso, with César Trombetta aboard, transported special forces from the naval station on Thule Island, 16 March 1982, assisted in the invasion of South Georgia, and removed British personnel from the scientific station at King Edward Point, March-April 1982. Bahía Buen Suceso made 3 tourist cruises to the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands, January 1982. Mineral prospecting in Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands by Fabricaciones Militares continued.

        

1981-82 British Antarctic Survey

         Martin John Baker and Leonard Raymond Airey ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         David Michael Rootes and Alan Dudley Hemmings ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         John Hall and John Alexander Jewell ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Gijsbert Karel Nieuwenhuijs ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         Peter Richard Witty [to February 1982] and Stephen John Martin [to April 1982]

         (King Edward Point, South Georgia)

         (Commanders for summer and 1982 winter ■; appointed Magistrates by

         British Antarctic Territory or Falkland Islands Dependencies Government)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Field stations on Bird Island and Schlieper Bay (South Georgia), and Fossil Bluff (Alexander Island) open for summer; at Bird Island a United States Antarctic Program team worked in cooperation with the Survey. Party of German (BRD) scientists investigated plankton in the Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and Bellingshausen Sea from John Biscoe. Third ‘Offshore Biological Programme’ operated along a series of parallel tracks around South Georgia. Argentine activities at Leith Harbour, South Georgia, reported, Soviet Union tug Spacatel visited; King Edward Point attacked by Argentine forces, 3 April 1982, staff taken prisoner and removed to Argentina, all scientific programmes forcibly terminated; personnel on South Georgia field stations subsequently removed from war zone by the Royal Navy. Three men died on sea-ice off ‘Faraday’, August 1982.

        

1981-82 British naval voyage

         Nicholas John Barker     HMS Endurance

         Visited Falkland Islands, continued to South Georgia with the Governor, Rex Masterman Hunt, aboard and landed ‘Joint Services Expedition’; surveying undertaken off the Antarctic Peninsula and South Sandwich Islands; conducted iceberg dynamics experiments organized by the Scott Polar Research Institute and Norsk Polarinstitutt. Returned to South Georgia in March to assist civil administration during Argentine landings at Leith Harbour, landed a Royal Marine contingent at the end of the month and departed for Falkland Islands. [For further operations connected with the invasion see 1982 entry.]

        

1981-82 British Joint Services Expedition to South Georgia

         Robert E. Veal

         This 16 man expedition trekked in the Salvesen Range of South Georgia from a base at Royal Bay 12 December 1981 to 16 March 1982; glaciological, biological, and meteorological programmes were conducted.

1981-82 British expedition

         Lucinda Catherine Buxton and Anne Price

         Two Anglia Television Company wildlife photographers spent 5 months at Saint Andrews Bay, South Georgia, assisted by the British Antarctic Survey. [They were relieved by the Royal Navy after the Argentine invasion of the island in 1982 (q.v.).]

        

1981-82 Soviet Antarctic Expedition (SAE 27: 1981-83)

         Dmitriy Dmitriyevich Maksutov (in command of summer operations)

         Ryurik Maksimovich Galkin (‘Molodezhnaya’, Enderby Land;

         in command of winter operations)

         Yuriy Mikhaylovich Zusman (‘Mirnyy’, Queen Mary Land)

         Petr Georgiyevich Astakhov (‘Vostok’, South Geomagnetic Pole)

         Georgiy Petrovich Khokhlov (‘Novolazarevskaya’, Schirmacheroasen)

         Oleg Nikolayevich Struin (‘Bellingsgausen’, King George Island)

         Valeriy Sergeyevich Ippolitov (‘Leningradskaya’, Oates Land)

         Valeriy Filippovich Iagarshev (‘Russkaya’, Marie Byrd Land)

         (Leaders for summer and 1982 winter)

         Feliks Aleksandrovich Pes’yakov  Mikhail Somov

         Vladimir Ivanovich Uzolin        Professor Zubov

         Kim Nikolayevich Loskutov        Bashkiriya

         Valeriy Alekseyevich Sarapunin   Pioner Estonii

         Grigoriy Solomonovich Matusevich Vasiliy Fedoseyev

         Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Ponomarev  Estoniya

         Yevgeniy Anatol’yevich Bernadskiy        Urengoy

         ‘Druzhnaya’ (Filchner Ice Shelf) and ‘Druzhnaya II’ (Ronne Ice Shelf) open for summer. Traverses made to Dome Circe from ‘Mirnyy’ and ‘Pionerskaya’ stations for glaciological surveys. Geological investigation of southern Antarctic Peninsula began. Power house at ‘Vostok’ damaged by fire and station operated under very severe conditions awaiting replacements. Vasiliy Fedoseyev visited South Georgia. One man died at ‘Vostok’.

        

1981-82 Tourist cruises

         Hasse Nilsson    Lindblad Explorer

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

         Lindblad Explorer made 2 cruises from New Zealand, visited Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, Macquarie Island, Ross Sea regions; landed tourists on Scott Island, 7 January 1982. World Discoverer made 4 cruises from South America, visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula and Peter I o/y (29 January 1982); the third cruise was chartered by a Chilean company and took 3 tourist groups, who were flown to ‘Teniente Rodolfo Marsh Martín’ station (King George Island) by the Chilean Air Force, on local excursions.

        

1981-82 Yacht cruises

         David Lewis      Dick Smith Explorer (Australia)

         Patrick Cudennec Endeavour (Panama)

         Erich Wilts      Freydis (Germany)

         Jean Lescure     Isatis II (France)

         Yannick Trancart Mazeppa (France)

         Thomas Phillipe  33-Export (France)

         Dick Smith Explorer on an ‘Oceanic Research Foundation’ tour, visited Commonwealth Bay and Terre Adélie; at latter supported by French station ‘Dumont d’Urville’. Isatis II visited South Georgia; Freydis South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula. The others crossed the Indian Ocean calling at Iles Kerguelen where 33-Export was damaged and rescued by Marion Dufresne.

        

1982 Yacht cruises

         Giovanni Raggio  Caiman (Panamá)

         Olivier Gouon    Cinq Gars Pour (France)

         Carl Freeman     Quakster (Australia)

         Caiman arrived at South Georgia from Argentina, February, without reference to the island’s administration and remained 3 weeks while investigated by the Magistrate; claimed to be involved with Constantino Sergio Davidoff’s salvage contract (1979, q.v.). Cinq Gars Pour visited South Georgia, March to April, and filmed part of the Argentine invasion. Quakster visited Falkland Islands and South Georgia where rescued by the British Antarctic Survey, March.

        

1982 Argentine naval operation

         Osvaldo M. Niella        Bahía Buen Suceso

         Arrived in radio silence at Leith Harbour, South Georgia, 16 March, without reference to the local administration, and began salvage operations on behalf of Constantino Sergio Davidoff. Argentine flag raised and declaration of sovereignty made. British Antarctic Survey field party reported the presence of vessel, 19 March, and delivered a formal protest. The vessel departed, 22 March, leaving a 39-man salvage party ashore.

        

1982 Argentine invasion of South Georgia

         César Trombetta (Senior Officer Argentine Antarctic Squadron)

         Ismael Jorge García       Bahía Paraíso

         Carlos Luis Alfonso      Guerrico

         Horacio Bicairn  Santa Fé (submarine)

         Bahía Paraíso arrived at Leith Harbour, South Georgia, without reference to local administration, 25 March, from a voyage to Argentine stations off the Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands and South Sandwich Islands, with special forces, military supplies and equipment to establish a garrison there. On 3 April Bahía Paraíso and Guerrico (arrived 1 April) attacked the British Antarctic Survey scientific station at King Edward Point which was defended by Royal Marines landed from HMS Endurance on 31 March. Later that day the Royal Marines and civilians surrendered to Argentine forces, were imprisoned aboard Bahía Paraíso, eventually taken to Argentina, and subsequently released in Uruguay. On South Georgia Argentine garrisons were at Leith Harbour and King Edward Point; British civilian parties remained at Bird Island, Lyell Glacier, Saint Andrews Bay, and Schlieper Bay field stations. The invaders at King Edward Point surrendered to the Royal Navy on 25 April, those at Leith Harbour did so on the 26th, and were removed. Four Argentine service men were killed during the invasion and surrender. Santa Fé (arrived 24 April) and Phoenix (a landing craft) were sunk. A British garrison was subsequently maintained on the island until 24 March 2001.

        

1982 British naval operation (‘Operation Paraquat’)

         Nicholas John Barker     HMS Endurance

         Brian Gilmore Young      HMS Antrim

         John Francis Coward      HMS Brilliant

         Christopher Louis Wreford-Brown  HMS Conqueror

         David Pentreath  HMS Plymouth

         Anthony Morton   HMS Yarmouth

         Samuel C. Dunlop RFA Fort Austin

         G. P. Overbury   RFA Olmeda

         Christopher J. Blight    RFA Regent

         Shane Redmond    RFA Tidespring

         Alan J. Stockwell        Salvageman

         P. Rimmer        Yorkshireman

         Conqueror (a nuclear powered submarine) and the Royal Air Force inspected South Georgia; other vessels reached the island from 20 April; Argentine positions surveyed; Argentines aboard the submarine Santa Fé (Capt. Horacio Bicairn) and at the garrison on King Edward Point (commanded by Luis C. Lagos) surrendered, 25 April; those at Leith Harbour (commanded by Alfredo Ignacio Astiz) did so the next morning. Argentine military prisoners (146) and civilian deportees (39 salvage workers) were released in Uruguay. Subsequently the harbours of South Georgia were used by British naval and other vessels engaged in the operations against the Argentine forces in the Falkland Islands. Meteorological observations were re-established by British military personnel at King Edward Point.

        

1982 British naval operation (‘Operation Matchstick’)

         Nicholas John Barker     HMS Endurance

         Anthony Morton   HMS Yarmouth

         G. P. Overbury   RFA Olmeda

         Alan J. Stockwell        Salvageman

         Following use of the Argentine naval station in the invasion of South Georgia this fleet proceeded to Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands; Commander Enrique Peralta Martínez surrendered the station, personnel were removed and the station closed, 20 June.

        

1982 Economic Survey of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (Britain); the committee, chaired by Edward Arthur Alexander, Lord Shackleton, that prepared the 1976 report on the Falkland Islands and Dependencies (q.v.) reconvened to prepare a revised report, published in September 1982, which took into consideration the effects of the Argentine invasion and changed world economic circumstances.

        

1982-83 British Antarctic Survey

         Martin John Baker and Mark Peter David Lewis ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         David Michael Rootes and Alan Wooton ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         John Hall and Ian William Lovegrove ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Robert Edward Bowler ■ and Douglas George Allan ■

         (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf; 3rd and 4th stations)

         (Commanders for summer and 1983 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Paul Goodall-Copestake (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1983 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         New station constructed 12 km from existing ‘Halley’ to replace it from 1983-84. Field station at Fossil Bluff, Alexander Island, open for summer. King Edward Point station inspected and Bird Island station reopened in September 1982, personnel transported aboard HMS Hecate (Christopher Stafford Gobey). [Bird Island resumed normal operations, King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison against possible Argentine attack.]

        

1982-83 British naval operations

         Colin Laird MacGregor    HMS Endurance

         Christopher Stafford Gobey       HMS Hecate

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Orkney Islands (Signy Island and Laurie Island), and South Sandwich Islands (19 December 1982). Found an Argentine flag flying at the closed station on Southern Thule (1983, q.v.). Civil Commissioner of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, Sir Rex Masterman Hunt, visited South Georgia, March, aboard Endurance. [There were regular visits by British naval vessels to the Falkland Islands Dependencies in the period following the Argentine invasion; these relieved the South Georgia garrison, inspected the area, and conducted hydrographic surveys. Royal Air Force aircraft regularly flew from Falkland Islands to patrol the region and supply the garrison.]

        

1982-83 German (BRD) expedition

         Rolf Hochgrebe (‘Georg von Neumayer’, Ekströmisen; Leader for summer and 1983 winter)

         Gotthilf Hempel (Scientific Leader)

         Lothar Suhrmeyer Polarbjo/rn

         Heinz Kohnen (Scientific Leader)

         Arne Verpeide    Polarstern

         Franz Tessensohn (Scientific Leader)

         Magnar Aklestad  Polar Queen

         ‘Filchner’ (Ronne Ice Shelf) and ‘Lillie-Marleen’ (Oates Land) stations open for summer; geological investigation of north Victoria Land and oceanographic survey of the Weddell Sea continued. Polarbjo/rn visited South Georgia, March 1983. Geological survey made in eastern Dronning Maud Land.

        

1982-83 South African National Antarctic Expedition

         Pieter Benjimin Esterhuizen (Marion Island [40], from May 1983)

         Richard Rioley Seton (Gough Island [28], from October 1982)

         Carl Arnold Vermooten (‘SANAE III’ [24], Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst, from January 1983)

         (Leaders for summer and 1983 winter)

         William MacDonald Leith  S.A. Agulhas

         New geological field station, ‘Sarie Marais’, established at Grunehogna (72∙05°S, 02∙82°W), Ahlmannryggen. S.A. Agulhas visited South Sandwich Islands, January 1983, and made a voyage in July 1983 for investigation of the South Atlantic ionospheric anomaly. 30 MHz riometer installed on Gough Island. Prince Edward Island biological research continued. Two automatic meteorological stations installed on Bouveto/ya. SAS President Pretorius visited Marion Island, 18 December 1982, for a medical evacuation; S.A. Agulhas also visited in June and November 1983.

        

1982-83 Tourist cruises

         Hasse Nilsson    Lindblad Explorer

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands, South Georgia, and Ross Sea regions; Lindblad Explorer also visited South Sandwich Islands (landed on Zavodovski Island and Candlemas Island, January 1983), Peter I o/y, Macquarie Island, Auckland Islands and Campbell Island, and made 3 cruises from King George Island under charter to a Chilean company.

        

1982-83 Yacht cruises

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Philippe Cardis  Graham (France)

         Rolf Bjelke      Northern Light (Sweden)

         Willy de Roos    Williwaw (Belgium)

         Graham and Damien II visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula; at latter they sailed to 68∙35°S on the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, mountaineering and flying a 2-man ‘microlight’ aircraft; both continued to South Georgia. Northern Light and Williwaw visited South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula.

        

1983 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The launch, Albatros, was wrecked during winter. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government.

        

1983 British naval operation

         David Evans      HMS Ariadne

         John Wilkins     RFA Tidespring

         Following discovery of the Argentine flag flying at the closed Argentine station on Southern Thule, and considering its involvement in the invasion of South Georgia and the Falkland Islands, these vessels visited South Sandwich Islands to destroy the station, with the exception of one refuge hut (‘Teniente Esquivel’), 1 to 4 February. [Subsequent investigation has indicated that it was not an Argentine vessel which was responsible for the flag on Thule Island.]

        

1983-84 British Antarctic Survey

         Mark Peter David Lewis and Peter David Cotton ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         David Michael Rootes and Edward Clark Garrett Lemon ■

         (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         John Hall and Peter James Cleary ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Colin Douglas Nicol ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1984 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Robert Lidstone Scott (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1984 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         New ‘Halley’ [4] station completed and operating, February 1984. Fossil Bluff field station open for summer and a hut built on Rasmussen Island. Geological investigations of Ellsworth Mountains, Whitmore Mountains, and Patuxent Range began in association with United States Antarctic Program. Offshore Biological Programme operated near South Georgia during winter. Many Soviet Union and Polish trawlers noted operating around South Orkney Islands.

        

1983-84 British naval voyage

         Colin Laird MacGregor    HMS Endurance

         Based at Falkland Islands, visited the Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands (including Southern Thule), and South Georgia; Sir Rex Masterman Hunt (Civil Commissioner and High Commissioner) and Robert Fox (British Broadcasting Corporation correspondent) were aboard for one voyage.

        

1983-84 South African National Antarctic Expedition

         Graham Christian Clarke [March 1984 to July 1984] and

         Ernst Rossouw [July 1984 to May 1985] (Marion Island [41])

         Roelf Johannes van Rooyen (Gough Island [29], from August 1983)

         Malcolm David Hiom (‘SANAE III’ [25], Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst, from January 1984)

         (Leaders for summer and 1984 winter)

         William MacDonald Leith  S.A. Agulhas

         Survey made of Sverdrupfjella and Borgmassivet region. S.A. Agulhas also transported personnel to German (BRD) ‘Georg von Neumayer’ station; visited Bouveto/ya and South Sandwich Islands (landed on Zavodovski Island and Montagu Island, 26 January 1984); with Africana participated in ‘Biological Investigations of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks’ programmes, from March to April 1984; S.A. Agulhas worked along Mac. Robertson Land and Enderby Land where helicopter landings were made at ‘Mawson’ station, Fold Island, Taylor Glacier, and Proclamation Island for ornithological work; Africana also visited Gough Island. Biological research continued on Prince Edward Island. Hercules aircraft dropped medical supplies to Marion Island and SAS Protea made a medical evacuation of the station leader, July 1984.

        

1983-84 Soviet Antarctic Expedition (SAE 29: 1983-85)

         Nikolay Ivanovich Tyabin (in command of summer operations)

         Lev Valer’yanovich Bulatov (‘Molodezhnaya’, Enderby Land; in command of winter operations)

         Nikolay Kuz’mich Dmitriyev (‘Mirnyy’, Queen Mary Land)

         Vladimir Mikhaylovich Stepanov (‘Vostok’, South Geomagnetic Pole)

         Vladimir Yevgen’yevich Shirshov (‘Novolazarevskaya’, Schirmacheroasen)

         Oleg Nikolayevich Struin (‘Bellingsgausen’, King George Island)

         Pavel Maksimovich Nikolayev (‘Leningradskaya’, Oates Land)

         Vladimir Borisovich Usov (‘Russkaya’, Marie Byrd Land)

         (Leaders for summer and 1984 winter)

         Gennadiy Sergeyevich Buyanov     Baykal

         Grigoriy Solomonovich Matusevich Kapitan Gotskiy

         Mikhail Yermolayevich Mikhaylov  Mikhail Somov

         Yuriy Georgiyevich Burmistrov    Professor Vize

         Valeriy Alekseyevich Sarapunin   Pioner Estonii

         Marat Grigor’yevich Kobylyanskiy Akademik Krylov

         ‘Druzhnaya’ (Filchner Ice Shelf), ‘Druzhnaya II’ (Ronne Ice Shelf), and ‘Soyuz’ (Prince Charles Mountains) stations open for summer; survey of Berkner Island made from the former. Traverse made from ‘Molodezhnaya’ to Dome Circe for glaciological research; borehole made at ‘Vostok’, 2083 m deep. Geological and limnological investigation made at Gruberfjella in cooperation with German (DDR) team. Landed on Peter I o/y, October 1983, plaque commemorating Fabian Gottlieb Benjamin von Bellingshausen left. Nuclear power source introduced to supply automatic geo- magnetic observatory inland from ‘Mirnyy’ (the radioactive core is renewed annually). Three Cuban scientists wintered at ‘Molodezhnaya’. Baykal also visited South Georgia.

        

1983-84 United States Antarctic Program

         Edward P. Todd (Program Director, National Science Foundation)

         Brian Hall Shoemaker (Commander; Naval Support Force, Antarctica)

         William J. Beary (‘McMurdo’, Ross Island; Senior Naval Officer, 1984 winter)

         Robert Hurtig (‘Amundsen-Scott’, South Pole)

         Philip Colbert (‘Palmer’, Anvers Island)

         (Leaders for 1984 winter)

         Bruce S. Little  USCGC Polar Sea

         Pieter J. Lenie  Hero

         Emerson Hiller   Knorr

         Robert W. Haines Melville

         Francis James Honke      USCGC Westwind

         Henry H. Church  USNS Maumee

         Bjo/rn J. Werring        USNS Southern Cross

         Landing ground constructed at Marble Point (77∙43°S, 163∙53°E); ‘Siple’ station, Ellsworth Land, closed, January 1984; new ‘Byrd [II]’ summer station, mounted on sledges deployed. Palaeonto- logical examination of Seymour Island continued; geological survey made of Mount Siple, Marie Byrd Land. Oceanographic investigations near South Georgia and in the Scotia Sea made from Melville. Swiss glaciological team worked from the South Pole. Hero was withdrawn from service after 16 Antarctic summers. Westwind was severely damaged by ice off Larsen Ice Shelf, 1 January 1984.

        

1983-84 Tourist cruises

         Leif Skog and Hasse Nilsson      Lindblad Explorer

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

         Both vessels made 3 cruises from South America; visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia; each also made a fourth cruise to the Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, Campbell Island and Auckland Islands. Both ships landed tourists on Peter I o/y. [After this summer Lindblad Explorer was sold and renamed Society Explorer.]

        

1983-84 Yacht cruises

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Jean-Jacques Argoud      F’Murr (France)

         A. Pasgualini    Koala (France)

         Yannick Trancart Mazeppa (France)

         Rolf Bjelke      Northern Light (Sweden)

         Mark Hammond     Wayfarer IV (New Zealand)

         Damien visited South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and South Orkney Islands; Koala visited South Georgia; Wayfarer IV visited Macquarie Island, Campbell Island, and Auckland Islands; the others visited South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, Falkland Islands, and adjacent regions. [The frequency of private yacht cruises increased greatly from this summer, especially near South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula, several carried tourist parties.]

        

1984 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Government.

1984 British naval voyage

         Rodney De Forges Browne  HMS Herald

         Visited South Georgia, May and July, conducting hydrographic surveys; John Stanley, British Minister for the Armed Forces, was aboard for a voyage and inspected the garrison and facilities on the island.

        

1984 New Zealand expedition

         Ian Turnbull

         Visited South Georgia, conducted biological and geological investigations in the region around Royal Bay, 7 October to 24 December. Transported by Royal Navy vessels.

        

1984-85 British Antarctic Survey

         Peter David Cotton and Peter Radford Stark ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         David Michael Rootes and Richard Andrew Price ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         John Hall and Andrew George Speary ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Leonard Raymond Airey ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1985 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Robert Lidstone Scott (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1985 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         ?      RRS Discovery

         Fossil Bluff and Hope Bay stations open for summer. United States Antarctic Program ornitho- logical party worked at Saint Andrews Bay, South Georgia, supported by the Survey. Canadian engineers inspected ‘Rothera’ station for preparation of a rock-based landing ground. Geophysical survey of the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula continued. Oceanographic survey in the Weddell Sea made from Discovery. John Biscoe participated in ‘Biological Investigations of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks’ programmes and the ‘Offshore Biological Programme’ around South Georgia. Geological party worked in the Jones Mountains and on Thurston Island also in cooperation with United States Antarctic Program.

        

1984-85 British naval voyage

         Colin Laird MacGregor    HMS Endurance

         Based at Falkland Islands, visited the Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands (conducted an aerial reconnaissance), and South Georgia; Gordon Wesley Jewkes (Civil Commissioner and High Commissioner) was aboard for one voyage.

        

1984-85 Tourist cruises

         Hasse Nilsson    Society Explorer

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

         Vessels visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia.

        

1984-86 New Zealand yacht cruise

         Gerald S. Clark  Totorore

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, South Sandwich Islands, Bouveto/ya, Prince Edward Islands (some of those aboard repatriated from Marion Island), Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, McDonald Islands, and Heard Island; also called at Cape Town, and Perth; conducted ornithological surveys during the voyage. [Clark was the only participant for the entire voyage, crew engaged for various portions of the voyage.]

        

1985 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by the Falkland Islands Dependencies or South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government.

        

1985 Falkland Islands and Dependencies; Interim Administration Act of 1982 repealed and the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Order made, 20 March, came into force 3 October. The designation Falkland Islands Dependencies was abolished and replaced by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, and defined as all territories between 20°W and 50°W from 50°S to 60°S (thus also including Shag Rocks). A Commissioner, resident in the Falkland Islands, was designated to administer this territory. [The Commissioner also remained the Governor of the Falkland Islands and High Commissioner of British Antarctic Territory.]

        

1985 South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Gazette; first issue published in Stanley, Falkland Islands, December.

        

1985 British services expedition (Exercise ‘Green Skua’)

         Roger T. Morgan-Grenville

         A party of 13 from the garrison at King Edward Point, South Georgia, crossed the island following Sir Ernest Shackleton’s route (1914-16, q.v.) from King Haakon Bay to Stromness Bay.

        

1985-86 British Antarctic Survey

         Peter Radford Stark and Martin Dowson ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Ian William Lovegrove and Neil Leslie Rose ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         John Hall and Ashley Clarke Morton ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         John Michael Roscoe ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1986 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Mark John O’Connell (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1986 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Damoy Point and Fossil Bluff stations open for summer. John Biscoe was caught in ice off Adelaide Island and abandoned, but a change in conditions allowed the vessel to be recovered and programmes continued. James Ross Island palaeontological survey undertaken and geologists also worked on Livingston Island. Offshore Biological Programme operated for 3 months off South Georgia (6th summer); terrestrial biological studies also made on the island with a base at Husvik. Bransfield supplied fuel to ‘Georg von Neumayer’ station. Geological party worked a second summer in Target Hill region, in cooperation with United States Antarctic Program.

        

1985-86 British naval voyage

         Christopher Patrick Charles McLaren      HMS Endurance

         Based at Falkland Islands, visited South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands (continued the aerial reconnaissance), and South Georgia; Gordon Wesley Jewkes (Commissioner and High Commissioner) was aboard for one voyage.

        

1985-86 Soviet Union fisheries voyage

         ?      Mys Juno

         ?      Gizhiga

         ?      Mys Ostrovsky

         ?      Lazarev More

         Vessels conducted krill, fisheries, and hydrological research, in conjunction with the Soviet fishing fleets, around Terre Adélie, Falkland Islands, Shag Rocks, South Georgia, and Iles Kerguelen.

        

1985-86 Tourist cruises

         Werner Wolkersdorfer     Society Explorer

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

         Former vessel visited Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island, South Georgia, and South Sandwich Islands; the latter South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, South Georgia, Peter I o/y, and Ross Sea regions.

        

1985-86 Yacht cruises

         Capt. Yoshi      Aomi (Japan)

         Jean-Joseph Terrier      Belle-Étoile (France)

         Olivier Troalen  Cocorli (France)

         Francesco Battiston      Jancris (Italy)

         Jacques Auvray   Jamo (France)

         Oleg Bely        Kotick (France)

         Thomas J. Watson Palawan (United States)

         Patrick Jourdan  Rapa-Nui (France)

         Barry Lewis      Riquita (Australia)

         Frédéric André      Skua (France)

         Riquita visited Cape Adare region and Commonwealth Bay, Skua South Georgia, Jamo Iles Crozet and Ile Saint-Paul, Jancris Tristan da Cunha and Ile Saint-Paul (on a voyage to Italian communities throughout the world); the others Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and South Georgia regions.

        

1985-88 French yacht cruise

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, and South Orkney Islands; chartered for transporting scientists making biological and geological investigation of coasts of several of these regions by British Antarctic Survey.

1986 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government.

        

1986 South Georgia; A. K. Ross, from HMS Hermione, made an ornithological survey of Albatross Island, Bay of Isles, April (the ship was one regularly supplying the garrison at King Edward Point).

        

1986 Swedish expedition

         Krister Brood

         Four-man party, from Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, collected birds at Falkland Islands and South Georgia; transported by the Royal Navy.

        

1986-87 British Antarctic Survey

         Peter Radford Stark and David Mitchell ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Ian William Lovegrove and Richard Andrew Price ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         John Hall and William Kenneth Dark ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Paul Michael Aslin ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1987 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Simon Neil Delaney (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1987 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Damoy Point and Fossil Bluff stations open for summer. Over 200 landings made along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula for geological collections, this included a palaeontological survey of the Trinity Peninsula based at Hope Bay; volcanologists on Deception Island. Biological party, based at Husvik worked on South Georgia and included men from the Sea Mammals Research Unit. Offshore Biological Programme operated off South Georgia and in Stromness Bay (7th summer). Glaciological examination made of Rutford Ice Stream. Geological party worked a second summer in cooperation with United States Antarctic Program along Black Coast region.

        

1986-87 Netherlands expedition

         Hein D. van Bohemen

         Visited South Georgia, conducted a variety of investigations on Barff Peninsula; transported by the Royal Navy.

        

1986-87 Polish and United States oceanographic voyage

         Stanisl/aw Rakusa-Suszczewski and Jack Green (scientific leaders for first and second voyages)

         ?      Profesor Siedlecki

         First voyage was for Polska Morska Naukowa [Polish Academy of Sciences] ‘Biological Invest- igations of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks’ investigations. Vessel then leased by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, undertook ichthyological investigations around South Georgia and South Shetland Islands.

        

1986-87 Soviet Union fisheries voyage

         ?      Mys Juno

         ?      Gizhiga

         ?      Eureka

         ?      Skif

         ?      Fiolent

         ?      Kronometer

         Vessels continued krill, fisheries, and hydrological research, in conjunction with the Soviet fishing fleets, on the Southern Ocean around South Georgia, Iles Kerguelen, and other areas.

        

1986-87 Spanish fisheries expedition

         Eduardo Balguerías Guerra (Chief Scientist)

         Manuel Ríos Caeiro        Nuevo Alocero

         Juan López        Pescapuerta IV

         Instituto Español de Oceanografía party investigated fisheries potential of the islands around the Scotia Sea and South Shetland Islands, visited Shag Rocks, South Georgia, South Sandwich Islands, and South Orkney Islands, November 1986 to February 1987.

        

1986-87 Tourist cruises

         Werner Wolkersdorfer     Society Explorer

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

South Georgia. World Discoverer also landed 130 tourists on Peter I o/y, January 1987, when Aurora (Bernt Einar Steinsland, 1986-87, q.v.) visited.

        

1986-87 Yacht cruises

         William Reid Stowe       Anne (United States)

         Georges Meffre   Antarès (France)

         Jacques Auvray   Jamo (France)

         Oleg Bely        Kotick (France)

         ?      Leisurely Leo (Britain)

         Patrick Leclerq  Mata Hiva (France)

         Richard Thomas   Northanger (Britain)

         Warren James Brown       War Baby (Bermuda)

         Antarès and Jamo visited Ile Saint-Paul; the others visited the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands; Mata Hiva also visited South Georgia.

        

1987 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government.

        

1987-88 British Antarctic Survey

         Peter Radford Stark and Sean Brian Crane ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Ian William Lovegrove and Phillip Walter James Smith ■

         (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         John Hall and Peter Timothy Marquis ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Brian William Newham ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1988 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Anthony David Williams (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1988 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         P. McDermott     RRS Discovery

         Marine and terrestrial biological parties worked at Stromness Bay, South Georgia. Biological and geological investigation made at Deception Island. Geological investigation of relationships between Greater and Lesser Antarctica made in conjunction with United States Antarctic Program. Discovery continued a geophysical survey in the Scotia Sea and off the Antarctic Peninsula with a special investigation of the environmental effects of seismic sounding. Conjugate ionosphere project established at ‘Halley’ in cooperation with the National Science Foundation (United States). Two Bulgarian geologists accompanied the expedition and investigated sites for a station on Alexander Island.

        

1987-88 British naval voyage

         Thomas Lacey Murray Sunter       HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

1987-88 United States oceanographic voyage

         Zbigniew Ossinski        Profesor Siedlecki

         Polish vessel, leased by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration undertook ichthy- ological investigations around South Georgia and South Shetland Islands.

        

1987-88 Tourist cruises

         ?      Río Baker

         Capt. Mindrinos  Illiria

         Heinz Aye        Society Explorer

         Rüdiger Hannemann and Heinz Aye     World Discoverer

         Society Explorer and World Discoverer made 9 Antarctic cruises each; visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia. Illiria (on charter from a Greek company) and Río Baker (from Chile) visited South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula.

        

1987-88 Yacht cruises

         Roger Swanson    Cloud Nine (United States)

         Oleg Bely        Kotick (France)

         Patrick Feron    Nouanni (France)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Hernán Alvarez Forn       Pequod (Argentina)

         Edward Gillette  Sea Tomato (United States)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula; Pelagic also reached South Georgia and carried an Italian mountaineering expedition led by Marco Morosini; Sea Tomato was rowed across Drake Passage and left at South Shetland Islands from where complement relieved by Chilean airforce (the vessel was not fitted out as a yacht).

        

1988 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government.

        

1988-89 British Antarctic Survey

         Peter Radford Stark and Mark Sidney Cranney ■ ‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Ian William Lovegrove and Stephen Bancroft ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         John Hall and Ashley Clarke Morton ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Donald Stewart ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1989 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Michael Robert Rhys Jones (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1989 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         P. Moore and S. Mayle    RRS Charles Darwin

         Fossil Bluff and Damoy Point open for summer; marine and terrestrial biological parties continued work at Stromness Bay, South Georgia. Geological investigation of relationships between Greater and Lesser Antarctica made in conjunction with United States Antarctic Program. Antarctic Treaty inspection of several stations conducted.

        

1988-89 British naval voyage

         Thomas Lacey Murray Sunter       HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions. Carried a joint British and New Zealand party which conducted Antarctic Treaty inspections of 11 stations. Vessel sustained damage in an ice collision, 7 February 1989, and was assisted by Stena Seaspread.

        

1988-89 Polish and British oceanographic voyage

         Stanisl/aw Rakusa-Suszczewski and Inigo Everson (scientific leaders, first and second voyages)

         Zbigniew Ossinski        Profesor Siedlecki

         First voyage investigated biology and oceanography along the ice edge between Elephant Island and South Orkney Islands. Second voyage worked around South Georgia.

        

1988-89 United States oceanographic voyage

         William Stubblefield     Surveyor

         Continued previous year’s work for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, undertook ichthyological and krill investigations around South Georgia and South Shetland Islands.

        

1988-89 Tourist cruises

         ?      Antonina Nezhdanova

         ?      Cruz de Froward

         A. Parisis       Illiria

         Ralf Zander and Karl-Ulrich Lampe        Society Explorer

         Mark Hammond     Tradewind

         ?      Wildhaditurm

         Heinz Aye        World Discoverer

         Society Explorer and World Discoverer made 9 Antarctic cruises each; visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia. Antonina Nezhdanova (chartered Soviet Union vessel) and Illiria (chartered Greek vessel) visited South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula; Cruz de Froward (Chile) visited eastern part of Dronning Maud Land from Cape Town for a filming reconnaissance. Tradewind made several cruises from New Zealand to Campbell Island and Auckland Islands, issued fabricated postage stamps.

        

1989 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government.

        

1989 South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; the Commissioner issued the ‘Territorial Sea Order’ (1995 of 1989), 1 November 1989, which came into force on 1 January 1990, and extended the territorial limit to 12 nautical miles [22∙22 km, see also 1993].

        

1989-90 British Antarctic Survey

         Peter Radford Stark and Alasdair John Gilbertson ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Ian William Lovegrove and Jeremy Glyn Colman ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         Peter Timothy Marquis and William Kenneth Dark ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Adrian Paul Bateman ■ and Andrew John O’Sullivan ■ (‘Halley’ 4 and 5, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1990 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Timothy Roy Barton (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1990 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Göran Tidholm       Columbia Land

         Fossil Bluff station open for summer; construction of ‘Halley’ 5 station continued, both new and old stations occupied for winter. New runway on Adelaide Island near ‘Rothera’ constructed, men and equipment transported aboard Columbia Land [formerly Stena Arctica]. Field hut built on Lagoon Island, near ‘Rothera’ station.

        

1989-90 British naval voyage

         Norman Richard Hodgson   HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

1989-90 Norwegian South Georgian expeditions

         Svein Mathiesen and Bjo/rn Basberg

         Geir A. Olsen    Andenes

         Separate party from Norsk Polarinstitutt worked at Husvik and other South Georgia whaling stations involved in reindeer studies and industrial archaeology.

        

1989-90 British expedition (Britain)

         Julian Freeman-Atwood

         Private expedition made a reconnaissance of South Georgia to examine possibilities of adventure and travel experience.

        

1989-90 Tourist cruises

         I. Pittas        Illiria

         ?      Nordbrise

         Ralf Zander      Society Explorer

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe and Heinz Aye  World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia.

        

1990 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government.

        

1990 South African voyage

         ?      Africana

         Visited South Sandwich Islands, deployed automatic meteorological stations on Thule Island and Zavodovski Island, February (with permission of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government); continued to Signy Island and Elephant Island, March.

        

1990-91 British Antarctic Survey

         Peter Radford Stark and Iain Thomas Goodfellow ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Nicholas Ievers Cox and Gregory Mark Wilkinson ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         Peter Timothy Marquis and Steven James McManus ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Philip Ian Clarke ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1991 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Gordon Malcolm Liddle (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1991 winter)

         Edmund Malcolm Stuart Phelps and

         Christopher Robert Elliott     RRS John Biscoe

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Biological and geological parties worked on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, sealers’ relics also investigated. Geological survey and volcanological survey of Marie Byrd Land, in cooperation with New Zealand and United States scientists continued. Summer party continued biological work from Husvik, South Georgia; Swedish party of 14 led by Anders Karlqvist also based there January to February 1991, travelled aboard chartered vessel Polar Circle (I. Slettevoll). Fisheries survey made around South Georgia and Shag Rocks from Falklands Protector.

        

1990-91 British naval voyage

         D. L. Deakin     HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

1990-91 British operation (from Portsmouth)

         Lyle Cragie-Halkett

         Nigel Miller     Throsk

         Marine Salvage Services, under contract to South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government and Christian Salvesen and Company removed fuel oil (taken aboard Copemar 1 from Uruguay) and other contaminants from the abandoned whaling stations Grytviken, Husvik, Stromness, and Leith, on South Georgia. William Nigel Bonner inspected the operations and establishment of a South Georgia Whaling Museum at Grytviken.

        

1990-91 ‘Greenpeace’ expedition

         Keith Swenson [New Zealand] (Cape Evans, Leader for 1991 winter)

         Arne Jacob Sorensen      Gondwana

         Private expedition organized from the Netherlands, relieved the station at Cape Evans; also visited Peter I o/y, Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands,and South Georgia; summer camp deployed on King George Island.

        

1990-91 South African National Antarctic Expedition

         Robert Jones (Marion Island [48], from April 1991)

         Johannes Erasmus Möller (Gough Island [36], from September 1990)

         George McFie (‘SANAE III’ [32], Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst, from December 1990)

         (Leaders for summer and 1991 winter)

         William MacDonald Leith and

         Henk Toxopeus  S.A. Agulhas

         ‘Sarie Marais’ station open for summer. Geological survey of Sverdrupfjella, Ahlmannryggen, and Kirwanveggen regions continued. S.A. Agulhas visited the automatic meteorological stations on Southern Thule and Zavodovski Island, South Sandwich Islands, January 1991. SAS Drakensburg also reached ‘SANAE’ undertaking helicopter operations, returned the winter party and that from ‘Georg von Neumayer’; called at Bouveto/ya. Drakensburg visited Marion Island for a winter medical evacuation, June 1991.

        

1990-91 Tourist cruises

         ?      Europa

         Heinz Aye        Frontier Spirit

         ?      Illiria

         Leif Skog and A. N. Beig Ocean Princess

         I. Slettevoll    Polar Circle

         Ralf Zander      Society Explorer

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe and Olaf Hartmann      World Discoverer

         Frontier Spirit visited Terre Adélie, Campbell Island, Auckland Islands, and Ross Sea regions where a summer camp and helicopter base was established for a photographic company near Ross Island (which operated for 3 weeks). Other 6 vessels visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators estimated 1055 passengers were carried.

        

1990-91 Yacht cruises

         Bertrand Dubois  Baltazar (France)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul (France)

         Bernard Espinet  Croustet (France)

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Bernhardt Diebold        Diel (Germany)

         Fabian Poncet    Farewell (France)

         Olivier Pauffin de Saint-Morel   Kekilistrion (France)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

         Alain Caradec    Kotick (France)

         Jean-Pierre Danjoun      Passage (France)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Hernán Atila      Rapa-Nui (Brasil)

         Tatesumu Kidokoro        Red Sun (Japan)

         Wolfgang Kloss   Santa Maria (Germany)

         Keith Clement    Sol (Australia)

         Peder Krogh      Sorgenfri (Norway)

         Mark Hammond     Tradewind (New Zealand)

         Visited South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions; Tradewind visited Campbell Island, Auckland Islands, and Macquarie Island. South Georgia was visited by a South African Mountain Club party aboard Diel, a Swiss film party aboard Sol, Damien II and Farewell. Several yachts carried tourist parties. [The frequency of chartering of private yachts by tourist groups, private expeditions, and other parties increased greatly from this summer, especially near South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula.]

        

1990-92 Yacht cruises

         Erich Wilts      Freydis (Germany)

         Rolf Bjelke      Northern Light (Sweden)

         Cristophe Houdaille      Saturnin (France)

         Vessels wintered at Deception Island, Hovgaard Island, and South Georgia respectively; Freydis partly crushed by ice, complement wintered in the Argentine summer station until rescued by the Argentine navy.

        

1991 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued; John Caradoc Jones (Harbour Master) and Jan Mills (Royal Marines) ascended Mount Paget, 18 February. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. The catamaran Travel Crest Seawave, abandoned off Cabo de Hornos, was washed ashore near Kupriyanov Islands, wreck visited by Pascal Grinberg aboard yacht C. Flat Scherzo (France).

        

1991 Royal Anglian Expedition (Britain)

         Richard Clements

         Visited South Georgia, used sea kayaks to investigate the south eastern portions of the island; transported aboard Royal Navy vessels.

        

1991-92 British Antarctic Survey

         David Mitchell and Stephen Jones ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Neil Stephen Gilbert and Brian Mallon ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         Alan Campbell Osborne and Michael David Powell ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Brian William Newham and Ewan Scott Hunter ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1992 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         John Cooper (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1992 winter)

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Nicholas Anthony Beer  RRS James Clark Ross

         Biological party continued work on South Georgia based at Husvik whaling station. Hope Bay station (‘Base D’) visited and maintained.

        

1991-92 British naval voyage

         Robert Milligan Turner   HMS Polar Circle

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions. [HMS Polar Circle, chartered from the Norwegian Coast Guard, replaced HMS Endurance.]

        

1991-92 Tourist cruises

         ?      Akademik Boris Petrov

         ?      Columbus Caravelle

         ?      Daphne

         Heinz Aye and Leif Skog  Frontier Spirit

         Daskalakis Themistoklis  Illiria

         Pierre de la Rey Ocean Princess

         Valeriy Maksimov Professor Molchanov

         Heinz Aye        Society Explorer

         Raimund Krüger      Vistamar

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia; Frontier Spirit landed a party of over 100 tourists on Cooper Island (a Specially Protected Area). Landing by Peter Harrison from Society Explorer made on Shag Rocks by inflatable craft, climbed to the summit of the main outcrop, 71 m, 26 December 1991. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators estimated 4150 passengers were carried. [From this season chartered Russian vessels became a major carrier of tourists to the Antarctic.]

        

1991-92 Yacht cruises

         Jean Collet      Antarctica (France)

         William Kerr     Assent (Britain)

         Bertrand Dubois  Baltazar (France)

         Sue-Anne Colding Betelgeuse (United States)

         Pascal Grinberg  C. Flat Scherzo (France)

         Roger Swanson    Cloud Nine (United States)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul (France)

         Timothy Carr     Curlew (Britain)

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

         Alain Caradec    Kotick (France)

         Pertti Duweker   Merivoukka (Finland)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Rudolf Krautschneider    Polarka (Czechoslovakia)

         Geoffrey Payne   Skookum (Canada)

         Eerde Beulakker  Teake Hadewych (Netherlands)

         Erich Barde      Theorus (Switzerland)

         Mark Hammond     Tradewind (New Zealand)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions. Polarka visited Prince Edward Islands, Heard Island, Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen. Several yachts carried tourist parties. [Antarctica was formerly U.A.P.]

        

1992 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government.

        

1992 South Georgia; Christian Salvesen and Company (Britain) relinquished its leases of Grytviken, Husvik, Stromness, Leith, and Prince Olav Harbour whaling stations to South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government, 27 February. These were the last Antarctic whaling leases.

        

1992 British expedition

         William Nigel Bonner

         Party of 4 continued work on South Georgia Whaling Museum at Grytviken, January to February and November to December; transported by Royal naval vessels. Over 250 visitors were received at the museum in the first 6 weeks of 1992.

        

1992 United States fisheries voyage

         ?      Pro Surveyor

         Surveyed crab (Paralomis spinissima and P. formosa) concentrations around Shag Rocks and South Georgia, 10 July to 1 August.

        

1992-93 British Antarctic Survey

         David Mitchell and Derek Goodwin ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Neil Stephen Gilbert and Russell Manning ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         Alan Campbell Osborne and Stephen Thomas Dow ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Robert Weight ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1993 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Keith Reid (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1993 winter)

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Nicholas Anthony Beer  RRS James Clark Ross

         ‘Halley 4’ station dissembled and closed, biological party continued work on South Georgia based at Husvik whaling station. ‘Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Experiment’ in ionospherics established at ‘Halley’ with a conjugate point in Goose Bay (Canada). Transported a Swedish geological party which worked on James Ross Island.

        

1992-93 British naval voyage

         Robert Milligan Turner   HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions. Antarctic Treaty inspection of stations and ships conducted jointly with Korea (Seoul) and Italian representatives. [HMS Polar Circle was renamed HMS Endurance.]

1992-93 Norwegian South Georgian expedition

         Bjo/rn Basberg

         Party from Norsk Polarinstitutt continued industrial archaeology survey at South Georgia (Grytviken). Transport provided by the Royal Navy.

        

1992-93 United States voyage

         Hamilton Carter  Abel-J

         Private expeditions chartered this vessel; a radio amateur expedition to Southern Thule, South Sandwich Islands; the British Broadcasting Corporation for South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula; and some other groups.

        

1992-93 Tourist cruises

         Valeriy Beluga   Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Yevgeniy K. Balashov     Columbus Caravelle

         ?      Europa

         Uli Demel        Explorer

         Heinz Aye        Frontier Spirit

         ?      Illiria

         Piotr Golikov    Kapitan Khlebnikov

         ?      Northern Ranger

         George Zachaarakis       Ocean Princess

         ?      Pacific Ruby

         Valeriy Maksimov Professor Molchanov

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe and Ralf Zander        World Discoverer

         Akademik Sergey Vavilov and Columbus Caravelle visited Ross Sea regions, Macquarie Island, Campbell Island, and Auckland Islands, Kapitan Khlebnikov had also called at several Indian Ocean islands; others visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia; last one visited Auckland Islands and Campbell Island. Scott Polar Research Institute group transported to Antarctic Peninsula sites. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 6704 passengers carried on 59 cruises. [Explorer was formerly Society Explorer.]

        

1992-93 Yacht cruises

         Donald McIntyre  Buttercup (Australia)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         ?      Dahu (Switzerland)

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Didier Forest    Diva (France)

         Erich Wilts      Freydis (Germany)

         John Hendly      Iniquity (Australia)

         Dick Kroopmans   Jantine (Netherlands)

         Olivier Pauffin de Saint-Morel   Kekilistrion (France)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

         Alain Caradec    Kotick (France)

         Christine Darde  Mari-Stella (France)

         Harald Voss      Moritz D (Germany)

         Hugues Delignières        Oviri (France)

         Alan Sendall     Peggotty (New Zealand)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Rudolf Krautschneider    Polarka (Czechoslovakia)

         Jantine visited Iles Kerguelen, Buttercup and Iniquity Commonwealth Bay; others visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions, Diva visited these and South Orkney Islands also; Pelagic was chartered by ‘Greenpeace’ organization and several yachts carried tourists.

        

1992-2006 Yacht cruise

         Timothy Carr     Curlew (Britain)

         Wintered on South Georgia, employed by South Georgia Whaling Museum, Grytviken [later South Georgia Museum]. Curlew was removed from South Georgia in 2003 but Tim and Pauline Carr remained on the island.

        

1993 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. The Commissioner, David Everard Tatham, made an inspection visit, December.

1993 South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands; the Commissioner issued a ‘Proclamation (Maritime Zone)’ (1 of 1993), 7 May, which established a 200 nautical mile [370 km] limit around these territories.

        

1993-94 British Antarctic Survey

         Michael Ernest Dinn and Duncan Haigh ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Neil Stephen Gilbert and Martin Clive Davey ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         Paul Ian Rose and Stephen Rumble ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Leslie Peter Whittamore and Brian Mallon ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1994 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Nicholas Huin (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1994 winter)

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Nicholas Anthony Beer  RRS James Clark Ross

         Biological party continued work on South Georgia based at Husvik whaling station. Sledge dogs removed from Antarctica. Ukrainian representative conveyed to survey ‘Faraday’ station.

        

1993-94 British naval voyage

         David Alan Phillips      HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions; supported British Antarctic Survey operations on the Filchner Ice Shelf and Berkner Island (reached 77∙56°S at 35∙13°W).

        

1993-94 German expedition

         Friedrich Schuster (‘Neumayer’, Ekströmisen; Leader for summer and 1994 winter)

         Ernst-Peter Greve and C. Allers  Polarstern

         Station relieved, Polarstern visited South Georgia.

        

1993-94 South African fisheries voyage

         ?      Africana

         Visited South Georgia, March 1994.

        

1993-94 South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands voyage

         ?      Cordella

         Vessel, chartered by the government, undertook a fisheries survey around South Georgia.

        

1993-94 Tourist cruises

         Nikolay Apekhtin Akademik Ioffe

         Capt. Kalishnikov        Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Heinz Aye        Bremen

         Yevgeniy K. Balashov     Columbus Caravelle

         Uli Demel and Leif Skog  Explorer

         Mark Hammond     Geomarine

         Hartwig von Harling      Hanseatic

         Viktor Vasilyev  Kapitan Khlebnikov

         Eric Bjurstedt and Peter Letzen  Marco Polo

         ?      Northern Ranger

         Gennadiy Ussopov Professor Molchanov

         ?      Sagafjord

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe and Ralf Zander        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia. Kapitan Khlebnikov and Marco Polo sailed from the Antarctic Peninsula to Ross Sea regions, former landed passengers on Peter I o/y and Sturge Island, Balleny Islands. Geomarine visited Macquarie Island, Campbell Island and Auckland Islands. Scott Polar Research Institute group transported to Antarctic Peninsula sites. Akademik Ioffe was seized in Falkland Islands. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 7957 passengers carried on 65 cruises. [Explorer was formerly Society Explorer and Bremen was formerly Frontier Spirit.]

        

1993-94 Recreational visits and adventurers

         Im-Gyung Go (Korea [Seoul])

         Ralph Fedor (United States)

         Trevor Potts (Britain)

         Norman D. Vaughan (United States)

         Private journeys: Go and 4 others, transported by Adventure Network International, traversed from Patriot Hills to South Pole. Fedor led an amateur radio group which landed on Peter I o/y for 22 days from Kapitan Khlebnikov and collected aboard Akademik Fedorov. Potts and 3 others sailed a yacht Sir Ernest Shackleton (transported aboard Kapitan Khlebnikov) from Elephant Island to South Georgia where rescued by Royal Navy. Vaughan travelled with dogs to Patriot Hills aboard a DC-6 aircraft which crashed, 25 November 1993, personnel rescued by Adventure Network International, several animals escaped, subsequent attempt to reach the mountain prevented by weather.

        

1993-94 Yacht cruises

         Joachim Scheid   Andromeda (Germany)

         Jorge Trabuchi   Callas (Argentina)

         Josephine Hunter Chanson de Lecq (Britain)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Robert Shepton   Dodo’s Delight (Britain)

         Steven Kafka     Evohe (New Zealand)

         Erich Wilts      Freydis (Germany)

         Olivier Pauffin de Saint-Morel   Kekilistrion (France)

         Jean Nydegger    Loca Lola (Switzerland)

         Georges Meffre   Métapassion (Australia)

         Harald Voss      Moritz D (Germany)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Olivier Carré     Popaye (France)

         Lawrence Bailey  Shingebiss II (United States)

         Warren James Brown       War Baby (Bermuda)

         Anne-Lise Guy    Wild Flower (Australia)

         Visited South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions; Chanson de Lecq and Moritz D visited South Georgia only; Evohe and War Baby The Snares, Auckland Islands, and Campbell Island; Wild Flower was abandoned on South Georgia, rescued and repaired by Royal Engineers, when sailed to South Africa, 1995. Several yachts carried tourist parties.

        

1994 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. Work continued on South Georgia Whaling Museum, Grytviken; Jason Wright led ‘Exercise Southern Ice’, an army expedition which retraced Sir Ernest Shackleton’s route (1914-16, q.v.) and examined Busen Peninsula, March; Trevor Potts private expedition removed from the island by the Royal Navy. The Commissioner, David Everard Tatham, made an inspection visit, February. During the year fishing vessels registered in Bahamas, Bulgaria, Chile, Japan, Korea (Seoul), Panama, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine made over 32 visits to King Edward Cove.

        

1994 South African naval voyage

         Brian Derek Law  SAS Protea

         Visited South Georgia, September, while laying weather buoys on the Southern Ocean.

        

1994-95 British Antarctic Survey

         Michael Ernest Dinn and Brian Mallon ■ (‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands)

         Neil Stephen Gilbert and Michael Ernest Dinn ■ (‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands)

         Paul Ian Rose and Paul Farmer ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Leslie Peter Whittamore ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1995 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Anthony Walker (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1994 winter)

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Michael Jeremy Stuart Burgan   RRS James Clark Ross

         Stations relieved; observatory and scientific programme continued. Visit made to King Edward Point, South Georgia.

        

1994-95 British naval voyage

         David Alan Phillips      HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

1994-95 German expedition

         Johannes Lowenstein (‘Neumayer’, Ekströmisen; Leader for summer and 1995 winter)

         Ernst-Peter Greve and C. Allers  Polarstern

         Polarstern visited South Georgia. ‘Georg Forster’, ‘Filchner’ and ‘Gondwana’ stations open for summer.

        

1994-95 South African National Antarctic Expedition

         Pieter J. Marthinus Smal (Marion Island [52], from August 1994)

         Gert van Eeden (Gough Island [40], from August 1994)

         (Leaders for summer and 1995 winter)

         Jakobus Gustav Nel (‘SANAE III’, Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst,

         from December 1994; Leader for summer)

         Kevin Denning    S.A. Agulhas

         Jan Adriaan Jacobus Botha Vorster and

         Anthony George Dalziel Absolom SAS Outeniqua

         Relief of ‘SANAE III’ and construction of a replacement station (‘SANAE IV’) attempted but severe ice conditions forced closure for 1995 winter; ‘Sarie Marais’ station open for summer. Outeniqua visited South Sandwich Islands to renew the automatic meteorological stations on Southern Thule and Zavodovski Island, also visited Gough Island. Geological survey made in Hallgrenskarvet and Heksegryta regions. Biologists investigated Robertskollen, Ahlmannryggen, and Jutulsessen regions; Norwegian biologists collaborated in Swarthamaren.

        

1994-95 United States oceanographic voyage

         ?      Surveyor

         Continued surveys for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, visited South Georgia.

        

1994-95 Tourist cruises

         J. Richard Farrell       Abel-J

         Nikolay Apekhtin Akademik Ioffe

         Valeriy Beluga   Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Nikolay Vinogradov       Akademik Shokalskiy

         Vyacheslav Vasyuk        Alla Tarasova

         Heinz Aye        Bremen

         ?      Eugenio C

         ?      Europa

         Leif Skog        Explorer

         Mark Hammond     Geomarine

         Hartwig von Harling      Hanseatic

         Viktor Terekhov  Kapitan Dranitsyn

         Piotr Golikov    Kapitan Khlebnikov

         Enn Soer Livonia

         Filip Kolesnikov Professor Khromov

         Gennadiy Ussopov Professor Molchanov

         ?      Vistamar

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe and Ralf Zander        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia, Eugenio C made no landings. Kapitan Khlebnikov sailed from Australia and New Zealand, to Ross Sea regions, landed passengers on Sturge Island, Balleny Islands; ran aground at Commonwealth Bay but was undamaged. Geomarine visited Macquarie Island, Campbell Island and Auckland Islands. Scott Polar Research Institute group transported to Antarctic Peninsula sites. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 8098 passengers carried on 93 cruises.

        

1994-95 Yacht cruises

         Peter Hill       Badger (Britain)

         James Leonard    Beagle Start II (Britain)

         Josephine Hunter Chanson de Lecq (Britain)

         Benoît Rouault     Chrysalide (France)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Isabelle Autissier       Ecureuil-Poitou-Charentes II (France)

         John Ridgeway    English Rose VI (Britain)

         Pascal Grinberg  Fernande (France)

         Philippe Poupon  Fleur Australe (France)

         Marcel Petter    Iaorana (Belgium)

         Allan Jouning    Itasca (Cayman Islands)

         Roberto Migliaccio       Jupiter (Britain)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

         Alain Caradec    Kotick (France)

         Georges Meffre   Métapassion (Australia)

         Kim Lundgren     Metolius (Norway)

         Rémi de Vivie     Pacome III (France)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Wolfgang Kloss   Santa Maria (Germany)

         Claude Houdaille Saturnin (France)

         Lawrence Bailey  Shingebiss II (United States)

         Christopher West Westri (United States)

         Majority visited South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and vicinity; dogs introduced aboard Chrysalide and Iaorana. Pelagic carried a climbing party to South Georgia which ascended Mount Paget, 26 January 1995. Ecureuil-Poitou-Charentes II was damaged and called at Iles Kerguelen; Chanson de Lecq visited Ile Saint-Paul. Several yachts carried tourists.

        

1995 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. South Georgia Whaling Museum, Grytviken, open, restoration of the whalers’ church began. The Commissioner, David Everard Tatham, made an inspection visit, April.

        

1995-96 British Antarctic Survey

         Paul Ian Rose and Tudor John Oxford Morgan ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Barry John Stewart Morton ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1996 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Paul Humpidge (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1996 winter)

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Nicholas Anthony Beer  RRS James Clark Ross

         ‘Faraday’, Argentine Islands’, transferred to the Ukraine (renamed ‘Akademician Vernadskiy’), 6 February 1996, and ‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands, became a summer station (commander; Martin Clive Davey); field hut built on Léonie Island, near ‘Rothera’; Portal Point field hut removed for the Falkland Islands Museum.

        

1995-96 British naval voyage

         Barry William Bryant     HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

1995-96 Tourist cruises

         Igor Viktorov    Akademik Boris Petrov

         Nikolay Apekhtin Akademik Ioffe

         Valeriy Beluga   Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Nikolay Vinogradov       Akademik Shokalskiy

         Vyacheslav Vasyuk        Alla Tarasova

         Heinz Aye        Bremen

         Leif Skog and Uli Demel  Explorer

         ?      Hanseatic

         Viktor Vasilyev  Kapitan Khlebnikov

         Enn Soer Livonia

         Eric Bjurstedt   Marco Polo

         ?      Montana

         Filip Kolesnikov Professor Khromov

         Gennadiy Ussopov Professor Molchanov

         Sergei Kostusev  Professor Multanovskiy

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, South Georgia, and Ross Sea sites. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 9212 passengers carried on 113 cruises. [Explorer was previously Society Explorer.]

        

1995-96 Yacht cruises

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Pascal Grinberg  Fernande (France)

         Philippe Poupon  Fleur Australe (France)

         ?      Freya (France)

         Erich Wilts      Freydis (Germany)

         Yves Bouyx       Gallad II (France)

         Otto Happel      Hetairos (Germany)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

         Alain Caradec    Kotick (France)

         Jean Monzo       Le Boulard (France)

         John Neal        Mahine Tiare (United States)

         Gregory Landreth Northanger (New Zealand)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Joachim Campe    St Michel (Germany)

         ?      Tenera Luna (Italy)

         Eric Bretscher   Yarra (Switzerland)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions. Party from Northanger climbed Mount Foster, Smith Island, 17 January 1996. Freydis visited islands south of New Zealand and Ross Island. Several yachts carried tourist parties or other charter groups.

        

1996 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. South Georgia Whaling Museum, Grytviken, open, restoration of the whalers’ church continued. The Commissioner, Richard Peter Ralph, made an inspection visit, September.

        

1996-97 British Antarctic Survey

         Paul Ian Rose and David Ganiford (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Martin Hutchinson Bell ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1997 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Robert Taylor (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1997 winter)

         Maurice John Cole and

         Stuart James Lawrence  RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Nicholas Anthony Beer  RRS James Clark Ross

         ‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands, open for summer; automatic seismograph station deployed on South Georgia; field hut at Orford Cliff, near ‘Base W’, removed; ‘Base Y’, Horseshoe Island reroofed and repaired. Comprehensive scientific survey of South Sandwich Islands undertaken, particularly biological and geophysical investigations, logistic assistance provided by HMS Endurance. Survey party ascended Mount Jackson, highest peak in the Antarctic Peninsula, and determined its elevation (3184 m). Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party began restoration of Port Lockroy (‘Base A’) station.

        

1996-97 British naval voyage

         Timothy John Barton      HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands (where some of the complement of Damien II were taken aboard), South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

1996-97 Norwegian South Georgian expedition

         Bjo/rn Basberg

         Party from Norsk Polarinstitutt continued industrial archaeology survey at South Georgia (Leith Harbour). Transport provided by the Royal Navy.

        

1996-97 Tourist cruises

         ?      Akademik Ioffe

         Sergey Glushkov  Akademik Shokalskiy

         Capt. Kalishnikov        Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Viktor Ivanov    Akademik Shuleykin

         Vyacheslav Vasyuk        Alla Tarasova

         ?      Bremen

         Leif Skog and Uli Demel  Explorer

         ?      Hanseatic

         Piotr Golikov    Kapitan Khlebnikov

         Filip Kolesnikov Professor Khromov

         Valeriy Maksimov Professor Molchanov

         Sergei Kostusev  Professor Multanovskiy

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia; Kapitan Khlebnikov circumnavigated Antarctica visiting 16 stations, landed passengers on Peter I o/y; Professor Khromov made two visits to Bouveto/ya, February and April 1997, landing was possible only during first; Explorer circumnavigated James Ross Island through Prince Gustav Channel, February 1997. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 7322 passengers carried on 104 cruises.

        

1996-97 Yacht cruises

         Paul Goss        Adix (Spain)

         Miles Quitmann   Ayesha (Britain)

         Gordon Schmidt   C-Lise II (United States)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Bernard Espinet  Croustet (France)

         Jérôme Poncet       Damien II (France)

         Eef Willems      Golden Fleece (Falkland Islands)

         Mladen Sutej     Hrvatska Cigra (Croatia)

         Olivier Pauffin de Saint-Morel   Kekilistrion (France)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

Alain Caradec Kotick (France)

         Jean Monzo       Le Boulard (France)

         Gregory Landreth Northanger (New Zealand)

         Dirk Tober       Onrust II (Australia)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Pelagic (Britain)

         Richard Crowe    Polar Mist (United States)

         Bubi Sanso       Rael (Spain)

         Wolfgang Kloss   Santa Maria (Germany)

         Henk Boersma     Sarah W. Vorwerk (Germany)

         Anthony Gooch    Taonui (Canada)

         Hervé Le Goff     Tigre-Mou (France)

         Frank Nugent     Tom Crean (Irish Republic)

         Claude Veniard   Vague-à-Bond (France)

         Pascal Boimard   Valhalla (France)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions. ‘South Arís’ expedition, from Ireland, aboard Tom Crean accompanied by Pelagic, endeavoured to repeat Sir Ernest Shackleton’s voyage from Elephant Island to South Georgia (1914- 16, q.v.) but Tom Crean was swamped, a party repeated the trek across the island, February 1997; Croustet circumnavigated Antarctica from Wellington, New Zealand. Approximately 12 of these yachts carried tourists and other chartered groups.

        

1997 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. South Georgia Whaling Museum, Grytviken, open, restoration of the whalers’ church continued. The Commissioner, Richard Peter Ralph, made an inspection visit, April.

        

1997 South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands voyage

         Martin Guy White (scientific leader)

         ?      Argos Galicia

         Government chartered vessel, undertook a fisheries survey around South Georgia, September.

        

1997 United States voyage

         Michael J. Moore (Scientific Leader)

         J. Richard Farrell       Abel-J

         Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution conducted a whale survey around Shag Rocks and South Georgia, 24 January to 17 February. [Eubalaena australis (Southern Right Whale) was the most common species observed.]

        

1997-98 British Antarctic Survey

         Paul Ian Rose and Robert Tulk ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Leslie Peter Whittamore ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1998 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Iain J. Staniland (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1998 winter)

         Stuart James Lawrence and

         John Bryce Marshall    RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Michael Jeremy Stuart Burgan   RRS James Clark Ross

         ‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands, Fossil Bluff, and Port Lockroy stations open for summer. Rocketry programme began at ‘Rothera’, 26 were fired up to 120 km altitude for atmospheric studies. Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party continued refurbishment of Port Lockroy (‘Base A’) station.

        

1997-98 British naval voyage

         Timothy John Barton      HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions; participated in a hydrographic survey of the Weddell Sea during which ‘Neumayer’ station was visited. A Royal Marine detachment, led by Ian McGill, retraced Sir Ernest Shackleton’s trek from King Haakon Bay to Stromness Bay, across South Georgia, 18 to 19 December 1997 (‘Patrol Orbat’).

        

1997-98 Tourist cruises

         Robert Wallace   Abel-J

         Nikolay Apekhtin Akademik Ioffe

         Sergey Glushkov  Akademik Shokalskiy

         Viktor Ivanov    Akademik Shuleykin

         Capt. Kalishnikov        Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Vyacheslav Vasyuk        Alla Tarasova

         Rüdiger Hannemann and Thilo Koch    Bremen

         Arne Dethlevs    Disko

         Leif Skog and Uli Demel  Explorer

         Heinz Aye        Hanseatic

         Viktor Vasilyev  Kapitan Khlebnikov

         Eric Bjurstedt   Marco Polo

         Gennadiy Ussopov Professor Molchanov

         Andrey Gostnikov Professor Multanovskiy

         Raimund Krüger      Vistamar

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia. Kapitan Khlebnikov also visited Heard Island. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 9604 passengers carried on 92 cruises.

        

1997-98 Yacht cruises

         Timothy Hugh-Trafford    Ardevora of Roseland (Britain)

         Bertrand Dubois  Baltazar (France)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Hugues Delignières        Deneb of Ryde (Britain)

         Gloudio Cosolari Don Vito (Argentina)

         Pascal Grinberg  Fernande (France)

         Philippe Poupon  Fleur Australe (France)

         Erich Wilts      Freydis (Germany)

         Jérôme Poncet       Golden Fleece (Falkland Islands)

         Hugues Delignières        If (France)

         Allan Jouning    Itasca (Cayman Islands)

         Olivier Pauffin de Saint-Morel   Kekilistrion (France)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

Alain Caradec Kotick (France)

         Jean Monzo       Le Boulard (France)

         Harald Voss      Moritz D (Germany)

         Keith Post       Najat (Australia)

         Dick van Andel   Oosterschelde (Netherlands)

         Roger Wallis     Parmelia (Australia)

         James V. [Skip] Novak and Hamish Laird   Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Patrick Tabarly  Pen Duick III (France)

         Erich Barde      Philos (Switzerland)

         Wolfgang Kloss   Santa Maria (Germany)

         Henk Boersma     Sarah W. Vorwerk (Germany)

         Julio Verstaeten Sposmoker II (Netherlands)

         Hervé Le Goff     Tigre-Mou (France)

         Pascal Boimard   Valhalla (France)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions. Approximately 12 of these yachts carried tourists, mountaineers, and other chartered groups. [Delignières was employed as master for separate cruises.]

        

1998 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. South Georgia Museum, Grytviken, open; restoration of the whalers’ church continued.

        

1998 South African fisheries voyage

         Boetie Kuttel    Sudur Havid

         Vessel, with a full catch, bunkered off South Georgia and was overwhelmed by an exceptional wave and foundered, 6 June, to the west of the island; 17 of complement of 38 died; survivors brought to King Edward Point aboard Isla Camila (Chile) and thence to Falkland Islands aboard RFA Gray Rover.

        

1998-99 British Antarctic Survey

         Paul Ian Rose and Margaret M. Annat ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Leslie Peter Whittamore and Simon Neil Gill Victoria J. Auld ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 1999 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Leslie Peter Whittamore (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 1999 winter)

         Stuart James Lawrence and

         John Bryce Marshall    RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Michael Jeremy Stuart Burgan   RRS James Clark Ross

         ‘Fossil Bluff’ and ‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands, open for summer. Bransfield also visited ‘Neumayer’ station. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party.

        

1998-99 British naval voyage

         Timothy John Barton      HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions. Antarctic Treaty inspection conducted jointly with German represent- atives; 11 winter and 6 summer stations, and 2 ships visited.

        

1998-99 South African National Antarctic Expedition

         Terise Venter (Marion Island [56], from August 1998)

         Anke Kotze (Gough Island [44], from September 1998)

         Duncan Cromarty (‘SANAE IV’ [38], Vesleskarvet, from January 1999)

         (Leaders for summer and 1999 winter)

         William McDonald Leith   S.A. Agulhas

         Ernst Hendrik Lochner    SAS Outeniqua

         ‘Sarie Marais’ station and ‘E Base’ (near ‘SANAE III’) open for summer, latter partly dismantled and removed. Outeniqua visited South Sandwich Islands to service the 2 automatic weather stations, continued to transport the Nordic Antarctic Research Programme and a Greenland party intending an inland traverse with motor vehicles.

        

1998-99 Tourist cruises

         Nikolay Apekhtin Akademik Ioffe

         Capt. Kalishnikov        Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Nikolay Vinogradov       Akademik Shokalskiy

         Viktor Ivanov    Akademik Shuleykin

         Thilo Koch       Bremen

         Leif Skog        Caledonian Star

         Torsten Olbrich  Clipper Adventurer

         Frantz Jensen    Disko

         Uli Demel        Explorer

         Heinz Aye        Hanseatic

         Piotr Golikov    Kapitan Khlebnikov

         Eric Bjurstedt   Marco Polo

         Gennadiy Ussopov Professor Molchanov

         Aleksey Zakalashnyuk     Professor Multanovskiy

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia. Kapitan Khlebnikov and Marco Polo continued to the Ross Sea regions. Inter- national Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 10 026 passengers carried on 92 cruises.

        

1998-99 Yacht cruises

         James Cornell    Aventura III (Britain)

         Bertrand Dubois  Baltazar (France)

         Jarle Andhoey    Berserk (Norway)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Terry Travers    Excess (Australia)

         Pascal Grinberg  Fernande (France)

         Eric Forsyth     Fiona (United States)

         Christopher Harding      Futuro (Germany)

         Jérôme Poncet       Golden Fleece (Falkland Islands)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

Alain Caradec Kotick (France)

         Jean Monzo       Le Boulard (France)

         Eef Willems      Meander (Netherlands)

         James V. [Skip] Novak    Meritsh Louise (British Virgin Islands)

         Dick van Andel   Oosterschelde (Netherlands)

         Amyr Khan Klink  Parati (Brasil)

         Hamish Laird     Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Erich Barde      Philos (Switzerland)

         Vincent Malquit  Regain (France, Nouvelle Caledonia)

         Lou Morgan       Risque (United States)

         Wolfgang Kloss   Santa Maria (Germany)

         Henk Boersma     Sarah W. Vorwerk (Germany)

         Henk Haazen      Tiama (Netherlands)

         Trygve Aanjesen  Taja (Norway)

         Anthony Gooch    Toanui (Canada)

         Volker Reinecke  Vegewind (Germany)

         Claude Plee      Viens-tu (France)

         Claude Appaldo   Voyou (Austria)

         Thies Matzen     Wanderer III (Germany)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions. Twelve of these vessels carried tourist groups, Tiama transported 6 mountaineers. Parati was circumnavigating Antarctica.

        

1998-2001 Yacht cruise

         Harald Voss      Moritz D (Germany)

         Wintered twice at South Georgia.

        

1999 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. The Commissioner, Richard Peter Ralph, made an inspection visit, January.

        

1999-2000 British Antarctic Survey

         Paul Ian Rose and Keiron P. P. Fraser ■ (‘Rothera’, Adelaide Island)

         Steven Marshall and Simon Prasad ■ (‘Halley’, Brunt Ice Shelf)

         (Commanders for summer and 2000 winter ■;

         appointed Magistrates by British Antarctic Territory Government)

         Margaret M. Annat (Bird Island, South Georgia; Officer-in-charge for 2000 winter)

         Stuart James Lawrence and

         John Bryce Marshall    RRS Bransfield

         Christopher Robert Elliott and

         Michael Jeremy Stuart Burgan   RRS James Clark Ross

         ‘Fossil Bluff’ and ‘Signy Island’, South Orkney Islands, open for summer. Bransfield also visited ‘Neumayer’ station. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party.

        

1999-2000 British naval voyage

         Andrew Dickson   HMS Endurance

         Visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

1999-2000 Tourist cruises

         ?      Aegean I

         Igor Vtorov      Akademik Boris Petrov

         Nikolay Apekhtin Akademik Ioffe

         Capt. Kalishnikov        Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Nikolay Vinogradov       Akademik Shokalskiy

         Viktor Ivanov    Akademik Shuleykin

         Thilo Koch       Bremen

         Leif Skog        Caledonian Star

         Torsten Olbrich  Clipper Adventurer

         Uli Demel and Peter Skog Explorer

         Jonas Ramanouskas        Grigory Mikeev

         Heinz Aye        Hanseatic

         Viktor Vasilyev  Kapitan Khlebnikov

         Aleksandr Babenkov       Lyubov Orlova

         Eric Bjurstedt   Marco Polo

         ?      Ocean Explorer

         Gennadiy Ussopov Professor Molchanov

         Aleksey Zakalashnyuk     Professor Multanovskiy

         J. W. Dijk       Rotterdam VI

         Karl-Ulrich Lampe        World Discoverer

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia. Kapitan Khlebnikov and Akademik Sergey Vavilov continued to the Ross Sea regions. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 14 297 passengers carried on 130 cruises (936 of whom, aboard Rotterdam IV did not land).

        

1999-2000 Yacht cruises

         R. Wakeford      Alderman (Britain)

         L. Didier        Arka (France)

         Bertrand Dubois  Baltazar (France)

         Michel Hennebert Callibistris (France)

         Alex Foucard     Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Arved Fuchs      Dagmar Aaen (Germany)

         J. Corbett       Express Crusader (Britain)

         Philippe Poupon  Fleur Australe (France)

         Jérôme Poncet       Golden Fleece (Falkland Islands)

         Arved Fuchs      James Caird II (Germany)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

Alain Caradec Kotick (France)

         Christian Galard L’Aventure (France)

         Eef Willems      Meander (Netherlands)

         Alain Kalita     Naïla (France)

         Dick van Andel   Oosterschelde (Netherlands)

         Hamish Laird     Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Erich Barde      Philos (Switzerland)

         Ken Passfield    Porvenir (Falkland Islands)

         Henk Boersma     Sarah W. Vorwerk (Germany)

         Marc Joel        Savannah (France)

         Richard Howarth  Shantooti (Britain)

         L. Tyler The Dove (Britain)

         Roger Wallis     Tooluka (Australia)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions. Fourteen of these vessels carried tourist groups, including mountaineers. Dagmar Aaen escorted James Caird II from Elephant Island after latter was dropped at Hope Bay from Bremen to re-enact the 1916 James Caird voyage for a television programme; Tooluka carried a mountaineering group who were active on South Georgia.

        

2000 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. The Commissioner, Donald Alexander Lamont, made an inspection visit, January.

        

2000-01 British Antarctic Survey; the following stations were open for winter: ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf), and Bird Island (South Georgia). On 21 March 2001 the station at King Edward Point (South Georgia) was transferred from the British Army to the Survey and re- established as a winter scientific station. ‘Fossil Bluff’ and ‘Signy Island’ (South Orkney Islands) open for summer. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, also open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party. Sea transport provided by RRS Bransfield and RRS James Clark Ross.

        

2000-01 British naval voyage; HMS Endurance visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

2000-01 Tourist cruises

         Capt. Poskoniy   Akademik Ioffe

         ?      Akademik Sergey Vavilov

         Heinz Aye        Bremen

         Leif Skog and Karl-Ulrich Lampe  Caledonian Star

         Aleksandr Golubev and Olaf Hartmann      Clipper Adventurer

         Uli Demel and Peter Skog Explorer

         Jonas Ramanouskas        Grigory Mikeev

         Thilo Natke and Matthias Bosse   Hanseatic

         Ivan Karavka and Oleg Agafonov   Kapitan Dranitsyn

         Viktor Vasilyev  Kapitan Khlebnikov

         Aleksandr Babenkov       Lyubov Orlova

         Roland Andersson Marco Polo

         Sergei Sviridov  Mariya Yermalova

         Yevgeniy Baturkin        Professor Molchanov

         Sergei Kostusev  Professor Multanovskiy

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney Islands, and South Georgia. Kapitan Khlebnikov and Akademik Sergey Vavilov visited the Ross Sea regions; former reached 78∙63°S in Bay of Whales. International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators reported 12 248 passengers carried on 131 cruises. [Tourist data are summarized henceforth from information provided by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators.]

        

2000-01 Yacht cruises

         Brian Elliott    Althea (New Zealand)

         Eric Dupuis      Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Robert Vos and Klaas Gaastra     Europa (Germany)

         Steven Kafka     Evohe (New Zealand)

         Pascal Grinberg  Fernande (France)

         Jérôme Poncet and Dion Michael Poncet       Golden Fleece (Falkland Islands)

         Peter Nell       Ice Maiden (Britain)

         Oleg Bely        Kotic II (Brasil)

         Alain Caradec    Kotick (France)

         Erling Baera     Morild (Norway)

         Richard Manning  M’our Bruin (Britain)

         Maurice Cloughley        Nanook (Canada)

         Carsten Steinbach        Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Erich Barde      Philos (Switzerland)

         Henk Boersma     Sarah W. Vorwerk (Germany)

         Marc Joel        Savannah (France)

         Peter Blake      Seamaster (Britain)

         Jürgen Scheld       Spirit of Assy (Germany)

         Roger Wallis     Tooluka (Australia)

         Mark Hopking and Andrew Dare     2041 (Britain)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions; Ice Maiden and Nanook visited South Georgia only. Eleven of these vessels carried tourist groups, including mountaineers, kayakers, divers, ciné and still photographers, and others.

        

2000-02 Yacht cruise

         Mark Carpenter   Joshua (Canada)

         Wintered at South Georgia.

        

2001 South Georgia; until 21 March the station at King Edward Point remained occupied by a British garrison, relieved by British naval vessels; aircraft reconnaissance of the island and South Sandwich Islands made periodically; meteorological observations continued. The Commanding Officers of the garrison were appointed Magistrate by South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. A building programme began and the station was transferred to the British Antarctic Survey to resume scientific research, 22 March (1982, q.v.). The Commissioner, Donald Alexander Lamont, made an inspection visit, at the time of the transfer. South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government civilian staff also remained at King Edward Point.

        

2001-02 British Antarctic Survey; the following stations were open for winter: ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf), and Bird Island (South Georgia). ‘Fossil Bluff’ and ‘Signy Island’ (South Orkney Islands) open for summer. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, also open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party. Sea transport provided by RRS Bransfield and RRS James Clark Ross.

        

2001-02 British naval voyage; HMS Endurance visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

2001-02 Yacht cruises

         Celia Bull       Ada II (Britain)

         Richard Crowe    Alaska Eagle (United States)

         Eric Dupuis      Croix Saint-Paul II (France)

         Brian Harrison   Dione Star (Cayman Islands)

         Pascal Grinberg  Fernande (France)

         David Dupuis     Gambo (Canada)

         Jérôme Poncet and Dion Michael Poncet       Golden Fleece (Falkland Islands)

         Aad Tweit        Helena Cristina (Netherlands)

         Rémy Poirier      Hinayana (France)

         Juan Ribas       Koan Arukanu (New Zealand)

         Alain Caradec    Kotick (France)

         Hugues Delignières        Le Sourire (France)

         Philippe Dupond  L’Ile Nue (France)

         Amyr Khan Klink  Parati (Brasil)

         Carsten Steinbach        Pelagic (British Virgin Islands)

         Erich Barde      Philos (Switzerland)

         Wolfgang Kloss   Santa Maria (Germany)

         Henk Boersma     Sarah W. Vorwerk (Netherlands)

         Andrew Dare      2041 (Cayman Islands)

         Visited Falkland Islands, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, and adjacent regions; Most of these vessels carried tourist groups, including mountaineers, kayakers, divers, ciné and still photographers, and others.

        

2002 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point, was administered by a Magistrate appointed by the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. Facilities were in common with the British Antarctic Survey scientific station. The South Georgia Museum, Grytviken, open.

        

2002-03 British Antarctic Survey; the following stations were open for winter: ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf), King Edward Point and Bird Island (South Georgia); ‘Fossil Bluff’ (Alexander Island) and ‘Signy Island’ (South Orkney Islands) open for summer. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, also open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party. Sea transport provided by RRS Sir Ernest Shackleton and RRS James Clark Ross. Scientist drowned by a Leopard Seal at ‘Rothera’, 22 July 2003.

        

2002-03 British naval voyage; HMS Endurance visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

2003 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point, was administered by a Magistrate appointed by the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. Facilities were in common with the British Antarctic Survey scientific station. The South Georgia Museum, Grytviken, open. Extensive programme of decontamination of the whaling station began.

        

2003 Spanish mountaineering expedition

         José Carlos Tamayo

         Private expedition ascended Mount Paget, South Georgia, November.

        

2003 South Georgia; severe weather caused 3 fishing vessels to run aground in Cumberland Bay: Lyn (Falkland Islands), Moresko I (Korea [Seoul]), and Viking Bay (Spain), 30 April; attempts to tow them off were made but only the last was rescued, the others were wrecked. Complements later relieved by 101 In Sung (Korea [Seoul]) and Sigma (Falkland Islands). The tug Typhoon arrived to assist with salvage, May.

        

2003 South Sandwich Islands; eruption of steam and lava observed from Mount Belinda, Montagu Island, December. [Mount Belinda (1375 m) is the highest peak in the group, the volcanic activity persisted for several years.]

        

2003-04 British Antarctic Survey; the following stations were open for winter: ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf), King Edward Point and Bird Island (South Georgia); ‘Fossil Bluff’ (Alexander Island) and ‘Signy Island’ (South Orkney Islands) open for summer. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, also open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party. Sea transport provided by RRS Sir Ernest Shackleton and RRS James Clark Ross.

        

2003-04 British naval voyage; HMS Endurance visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

2004 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point, was administered by a Magistrate appointed by the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. Facilities were in common with the British Antarctic Survey scientific station. The South Georgia Museum, Grytviken, open. Programme of decontamination of the whaling station continued.

        

2004-05 British Antarctic Survey; the following stations were open for winter: ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf), King Edward Point and Bird Island (South Georgia); ‘Fossil Bluff’ (Alexander Island) and ‘Signy Island’ (South Orkney Islands) open for summer. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, also open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party. Sea transport provided by RRS Sir Ernest Shackleton and RRS James Clark Ross.

        

2004-05 British naval voyage; HMS Endurance visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions. Antarctic Treaty inspect- ion of 14 occupied, 5 unoccupied, and 1 station under construction, 5 historic sites, and 1 tourist vessel conducted jointly with Australia and Perú.

2005 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point, was administered by a Magistrate appointed by the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. Facilities were in common with the British Antarctic Survey scientific station. The South Georgia Museum open. Decontamination of Grytviken whaling station continued.

        

2005-06 British Antarctic Survey; the following stations were open for winter: ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf), King Edward Point and Bird Island (South Georgia); ‘Signy Island’ (South Orkney Islands) open for summer. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, also open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party. Sea transport provided by RRS Sir Ernest Shackleton and RRS James Clark Ross.

        

2005-06 British naval voyage; HMS Endurance visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

2006 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point, was administered by a Magistrate appointed by the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. Facilities were in common with the British Antarctic Survey scientific station. The South Georgia Museum open. Decontamination of Grytviken whaling station continued and remains of factory machinery exposed.

        

2006-07 British Antarctic Survey; the following stations were open for winter: ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf), King Edward Point and Bird Island (South Georgia); ‘Signy Island’ (South Orkney Islands) open for summer. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, also open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party. Sea transport provided by RRS Sir Ernest Shackleton and RRS James Clark Ross.

        

2006-07 British naval voyage; HMS Endurance visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions. The British Princess Royal, Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise, accompanied the voyage to the Antarctic Peninsula.

        

2007 Winter stations; in this year 44 scientific stations were open in Antarctic regions: 17 on the peri-Antarctic islands and 27 on Antarctica. These were operated by 20 countries (one jointly) and participated in the programmes of the International Polar Years (2007-09, q.v.) which began on 1 March. They were: Argentina: ‘Esperanza’ (Hope Bay, 63∙36°S, 56∙99°W), ‘Belgrano II’ (Coats Land, 77∙87°S, 34∙63°W), ‘San Martín’ (Barry Island, 68∙13°S, 67∙10°W), ‘Orcadas’ (Laurie Island, 60∙74°S, 44∙73°W), ‘Jubany’ (King George Island, 62∙23°S, 58∙67°W), ‘Marambio’ (Seymour Island, 64∙24°S, 56∙66°W); Australia: Macquarie Island (54∙50°S, 158∙95°E), ‘Casey’ (Vincennes Bay, 66∙28°S, 110∙52°E), ‘Davis’ (Ingrid Christensen Coast, 68∙57°S, 77∙97°E), ‘Mawson’ (Mac. Robertson Land, 67∙60°S, 62∙87°E); Brasil: ‘Comandante Ferraz’ (King George Island, 62∙08°S, 58∙39°W); Britain: Bird Island (South Georgia, 54∙00°S, 38∙05°W), King Edward Point (South Georgia, 54∙28°S, 36∙50°W), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf, 75∙58°S, 26∙54°W), ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island, 67∙57°S, 68∙12°W); Chile: ‘General Bernardo O’Higgins Riquelme’ (Cape Legoupil, 63∙32°S, 57∙90°W), ‘Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva’ (King George Island, 62∙21°S, 58∙97°W): China (People’s Republic): ‘Chang Cheng’ [‘Great Wall’] (King George Island, 62∙21°S, 58∙96°W), ‘Zhongshan’ [‘Sun Yat-sen’] (Larsemann Hills, 69∙37°S, 76∙37°E); France: Port-aux- Français (Iles Kerguelen, 49∙35°S, 70∙20°E), ‘Alfred-Faure’ (Iles Crozet, 46∙43°S, 51∙87°E), ‘Dumont d’Urville’ (Terre Adélie, 66∙67°S, 140∙01°E), ‘Martin-de-Viviès’ (Ile Amsterdam, 37∙83°S, 77∙59°E); France and Italy: ‘Concordia’ (Dome Circe’, 74∙67°S, 124∙17°W); Germany: ‘Neumayer’ (Ekströmisen, 70∙65°S, 08∙25°W); India: ‘Maitri’ (Shirmacheroasen, 70∙77°S, 11∙73°E); Japan: ‘Syowa’ (Ongul, 69∙00°S, 39∙58°E); Korea (Seoul): ‘King Sejong’ (King George Island, 62∙22°S, 58∙79°W); New Zealand: ‘Scott Base’ (Ross Island, 77∙85°S, 166∙76°E); Norway: ‘Troll’ (Jutulsessen, 72∙00°S, 02∙53°W ); Poland: ‘Henryk Arctowski’ (King George Island, 62∙17°S, 58∙47°W); Russia: ‘Bellingsgausen’ (King George Island, 62∙20°S, 58∙97°W), ‘Mirnyy’ (Queen Mary Land, 66∙55°S, 93∙01°E), ‘Progress II’ (Larsemann Hills, 69∙38°S, 76∙39°E), ‘Novolazarevskaya’ (Shirmacheroasen, 70∙77°S, 11∙87°E), ‘Vostok’ (South Geomagnetic Pole, 78∙47°S, 106∙80°E); South Africa: Gough Island (40∙36°S, 09∙87°W), Marion Island (46∙87°S, 37∙86°E), ‘SANAE IV’ (Vesleskarvet, 71∙68°S, 02∙83°W); Ukraine: ‘Akademician Vernadskiy’ (Argentine Islands, 65∙25°S, 64∙26°W); United States: ‘Amundsen-Scott’ (South Pole, 90°S), ‘McMurdo’ (Ross Island, 77∙85°S, 166∙67°E), ‘Palmer’ (Anvers Island, 64∙77°S, 64∙05°W); Uruguay: ‘General José Artigas’ (King George Island, 62∙18°S, 58∙90°W).

        

2007 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point, was administered by a Magistrate appointed by the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. Facilities were in common with the British Antarctic Survey scientific station. The South Georgia Museum open. Gull Lake drained, dam refurbished, and reinstallation of a hydro-electric station began at Grytviken.

2007-08 British Antarctic Survey; the following stations were open for winter: ‘Rothera’ (Adelaide Island), ‘Halley’ (Brunt Ice Shelf), King Edward Point and Bird Island (South Georgia); ‘Signy Island’ (South Orkney Islands) open for summer. ‘Base A’, Port Lockroy, also open for summer with an Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) party. Sea transport provided by RRS Sir Ernest Shackleton and RRS James Clark Ross.

        

2007-08 British naval voyage; HMS Endurance visited South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, and Antarctic Peninsula regions.

        

2007-08 South African National Antarctic Expedition; the following stations were open for winter: Marion Island [65], Gough Island [53], and ‘SANAE IV’ [47] (Vesleskarvet). ‘E Base’ open for summer. Sea transport provided by S.A. Agulhas which also visited, Thule Island, South Sandwich Islands to re-establish the automatic weather station.

        

2008 South Georgia; the station at King Edward Point, was administered by a Magistrate appointed by the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Government. Facilities were in common with the British Antarctic Survey scientific station. The South Georgia Museum open. Reinstallation of a hydro-electric station at Grytviken continued.

        

Aanjesen, Trygve, (1998-99) 593

Aas, Bjarne, (1972) 389

Aas, Fredrik, (1932) 240

Abel-J, (1992-93) 546, (1994-95) 567, (1997) 582, (1997-98) 585

Absolom, Anthony George Dalziel, (1994-95) 565

Acevedo, Alberto Hipólito, (1976-77) 409

Active, (1793-94) 25

Ada II, (2001-02) 609

Adamsen, C., (1927) 218

Adare, Cape, 492

Adelaide Island, 81, 119, 331, 337, 341, 342, 349, 350, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 375, 378, 382, 385, 387, 391, 393, 395, 399, 403, 410, 414, 423, 424, 428, 429, 438, 449, 462, 470, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 628, 630

Adelia Chase, (1880-82) 108

Adélie, 316, 455, 490, 530, 628

Adix, (1996-97) 579

Admiral Colpoys, (1814-15) 52, (1815-16) 53, (1817*) 56

Admiralty Bay, 266, 268, 275, 278, 282, 283, 287, 290, 296, 302, 311, 316, 319, 327, 331, 337, 389

Adventure Network International, 558

Adventure HMS, (1772-75) 8

Aegean I, (1999-2000) 598

Africana, (1983-84) 472, (1990) 524, (1993-94) 555

Agafonov, Oleg, (2000-01) 603

Agnes G. Donohoe, (1910-11) 153

Agostino, Alberto Máximo D’, (1979-80) 427

Aguilera, Anselmo Ramón, (1976-77) 409

Ahlmannryggen, 465, 529, 565

Aiken, William, (1788-89) 16

Aircraft, crash, 317, 337, 363, 409, 422, 558

Airey, Leonard Raymond, (1981-82) 449, (1984-85) 480

Ajax HMS, (1937) 250

Ajmone Cat, Giovanni, (1973-74) 398

Akademician Vernadskiy, 570, 628

Akademik Boris Petrov, (1991-92) 537, (1995-96) 572, (1999-2000) 598

Akademik Ioffe, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996- 97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Akademik Knipovich, (1970-71) 383, (1971-72) 388

Akademik Krylov, (1983-84) 473

Akademik Sergey Vavilov, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Akademik Shokalskiy, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Akademik Shuleykin, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Aklestad, Magnar, (1979-80) 430, (1980-81) 441, (1982-83) 464

Aktieselskabet Rethval, 159

Alaska Eagle, (2001-02) 609

Alatna USS, (1965-66) 363

Albatros, (1953-54) 291, (1974*) 364

Albatros, (1983*) 468

Albatross Island, 495

Albatross, (1946-47) 260

Albertus le Roux, Pieter, (1961-62) 344

Albion Star, 125, 426

Alderman, (1999-2000) 599

Alert, (1928-30) 226

Alexander Island, 66, 119, 246, 337, 342, 359, 369, 375, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 399, 403, 410, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 462, 505, 611, 617, 620

Alexander, Cape, 296

Alexander, John, (1821-22) 72

Alférez Mackinlay, (1926) 211

Alfonso, Carlos Luis, (1982) 458

Alfred-Faure, 628

Alison, Frederick Black, (1927) 215

Alla Tarasova, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585

Allan, Douglas George, (1982-83) 462

Allardyce Range, 336, 361

Allardyce-Salvesen Expedition, 338

Allen, John Derwent, (1916) 181

Allen, J., (1819-20) 62

Allers, C., (1993-94) 554, (1994-95) 564

Almirante Brown, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448

Almirante Irízar, (1979-80) 427, (1980-81) 437, (1981-82) 448

Almirante Storni, (1976) 404

Alonso, Eduardo Ezequiel, (1981-82) 448

Alopex lagropus, 195

Althea, (2000-01) 604

American Museum of Natural History, 166, 172

Amery Ice Shelf, 354, 388

Ample Bay, 290, 385

Amsterdam, 77, 316, 444, 628

Amundsen-Scott, 351, 363, 442, 474, 628

Anan’yev, Vladimir Anatol’yevich, (1971-73) 388

Andel, Dick van, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599

Andenes, (1989-90) 520

Andersen, Albin, (1932-33) 242 Andersen, David, (1932-33) 242

Andersen, Lars, (1932-33) 242

Andersen, Nils A., (1911-12) 157

Andersen, So/ren, (1911-12) 160

Anderson, Hans, (1932-33) 242

Anderson, Iohn, (1838+) 82

Anderson, John, (1905-06) 129

Anderson, J., (1823) 77

Anderson, William Ellery McMahon, (1954-55) 296

Anderssen, Anton S., (1926-27) 213

Andersson, Gunnar, (1901-03) 124

Andersson, Roland, (2000-01) 603

Andhoey, Jarle, (1998-99) 593

André, Frédéric, (1985-86) 492

Andromeda, (1993-94) 559

Andrzheyevskiy, Oktavian Vitol’dovich, (1970-71) 383

Andvord Bay, 256

Anglia Television Company, 452

Anglo Norse, (1927-28) 221

Anita Dan, (1968-69) 376

Annat, Margaret M., (1998-99) 589, (1999-2000) 596

Ann, (1792-93) 23, (1793-94) 25

Anne Elizabeth Alice, Louise, Princess Royal, (2006-07) 627

Anne, (1818-20) 61

Anne, (1820-21) 67, (1821-22) 69

Anne, (1986-87) 503

Annenkov Island, 291, 391, 395, 411

Antarctic Circle, 8, 66

Antarctic Convergence, 209, 210

Antarctic Heritage Trust (U.K.) 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 630

Antarctic Peninsula, 81, 108, 119, 124, 222, 231, 246, 256, 262, 296, 301, 302, 309, 330, 331, 335, 359, 366, 376, 378, 380, 385, 387, 391, 392, 393, 395, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 403, 405, 407, 410, 412, 414, 415, 418, 420, 422, 424, 425, 429, 432, 433, 436, 440, 443, 444, 445, 448, 450, 453, 454, 455, 458, 466, 467, 471, 475, 476, 480, 481, 482, 489, 491, 492, 493, 497, 502, 503, 505, 506, 508, 509, 512, 515, 519, 522, 526, 528, 530, 531, 536, 537, 538, 544, 546, 547, 548, 553, 557, 559, 563, 567, 568, 571, 572, 573, 575, 576, 578, 579, 584, 585, 586, 590, 592, 593, 597, 598, 599, 602, 603, 604, 608, 609, 612, 618, 621, 624, 627, 631

Antarctic Place-names Committee, 299

Antarctic Sound, 124, 256

Antarctic Treaty, 285, 346

Antarctic Treaty, inspection, 349, 409, 442, 511, 512, 544, 590, 621

Antarctica, sighting of continent, 66

Antarctica, (1991-92) 538

Antarctic, (1901-03*) 124

Antarctic, (1945-46) 258

Antarès, (1986-87) 503

Antártida Argentina, 206, 323

Antártida, (1980-81) 437

Antoine de la Roche, (1674-75) 3, 5

Antonina Nezhdanova, (1988-89) 515

Antonio Moro, 293

Antonioni, José Conrado, (1978-79) 422

Antrim HMS, (1982) 459

Anvers Island, 81, 296, 301, 302, 311, 316, 363, 375, 378, 382, 442, 474, 628

Aomi, (1985-86) 492

Apekhtin, Nikolay, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Appaldo, Claude, (1998-99) 593

Appleman, William Henry, (1874-75) 97

Arab, (1818-19) 59, (1819-20*) 62

Arcondo, Pedro Pascual Pancracio, (1958-59) 326

Ardevora of Roseland, (1997-98) 586

Arduino, Adolfo, (1978-79) 422

Arendal, (1955) 302

Argentina, 206, 264, 457

Argentine Air Force, 382, 391

Argentine expedition, 148, 152, 155, 165, 174, 183, 185, 186, 197, 201, 207, 211, 217, 223, 234, 235, 254, 293, 300, 307, 317, 326, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448

Argentine flight, 391, 435, 446

Argentine invasion of South Georgia, 456, 458, 461

Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands, 461

Argentine Islands, 246, 266, 268, 275, 278, 283, 290, 296, 302, 311, 316, 319, 327, 331, 337, 342, 349, 350, 355, 359, 360, 362, 365, 369, 375, 376, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 397, 399, 403, 410, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 462, 470, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570, 628

Argentine naval operation, 457

Argentine naval voyage, 128, 148, 152, 155, 186, 197, 201, 207, 281

Argentine relief expedition, 369

Argentine voyage, 128, 169, 180, 325

Argentine whaling enterprise, 125, 126

Argentine whaling voyage, 272

Argentine yacht cruise, 509, 559, 586

Argos Galicia, (1997) 581

Argos, (1916*) 180

Argoud, Jean-Jacques, (1983-84) 476

Ariadne HMS, (1983) 469

Aristov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, (1971-72) 388

Arka, (1999-2000) 599Arktis, (1972) 389

Arneb USS, (1962-63) 351

Arrowsmith, Edwin Porter, (1962-63) 350

Arsenhault, Albert A., (1980-81) 442

Arthur Harbour, 296, 385

Arthur, Oswald Raynor, (1954-55) 294, 296, (1956) 302, (1956-57) 309, 311

Aslin, Paul Michael, (1986-87) 497

Aspasia, (1800-02) 39, 41

Assent, (1991-92) 538

Astakhov, Petr Georgiyevich, (1981-83) 453

Astiz, Alfredo Ignacio (1982) 459

Astrea, (1791-92) 22

Atila, Hernán, (1990-91) 531

Atka USS, (1965-66) 363

Atrevida, (1789-94) 18

Auckland Islands, 78, 83, 93, 432, 454, 466, 475, 476, 515, 530, 531, 547, 557, 559, 567

Augustyniak, Kazimierz, (1977-78) 419

Auld, Victoria J., (1998-99) 589

Ault, James Percy, (1915-16) 177

Aumann, Ricardo Horacio, (1977-78) 413

Aurora Islands, 6, 7, 9, 11, 18, 19, 65, 74, 75, 76, 81, 82, 86, 118

Aurora, (1762) 6, (1774) 9

Aurora, (1799-1800) 30

Aurora, (1986-87) 502

Australian Antarctic Territory, 308, 354

Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition, 308, 354

Australian yacht cruise, 455, 456, 492, 509, 531, 538, 548, 559, 568, 579, 586, 593, 599

Austrian yacht cruise, 593

Autissier, Isabelle, (1994-95) 568

Auvray, Jacques, (1985-86) 492, (1986-87) 503

Aventura III, (1998-99) 593

Avery, George, (1830-33) 81

Aver’yanov, Vyacheslav Grigor’yevich, (1971-73) 388

Avian Island, 420

Aviemore, (1908-09) 141

Aye, Heinz, (1979-80) 432, (1980-81) 443, (1981-82) 454, (1982-83) 466, (1983-84) 475, (1984-85) 482, (1985-86) 491, (1986-87) 502, (1987-88) 508, (1988-89) 515, (1989-90) 522, (1990-91) 530, (1991- 92) 537, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Ayesha, (1996-97) 579

Babenkov, Aleksandr, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Back, Eric Kenneth Prentice, (1973-74) 395, (1974-75) 399, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414

Bacon, William, (1799-1801) 33

Badaroux, Jorge Horacio, (1977-78) 413

Baden Powell, (1905-06) 129

Badger, (1994-95) 568

Baera, Erling, (2000-01) 604

Bahamas fishing voyage, 560

Bahamas whaling voyage, 373

Bahía Aguirre, (1954-55) 293, (1955-56) 300, (1956-57) 307, (1957-58) 317, (1958-59) 326, (1976-77) 409, (1977-78) 413, (1978-79) 422, (1979-80) 427, (1980-81) 437

Bahía Buen Suceso, (1951-52) 278, (1954-55) 293, (1981-82) 448, (1982) 457

Bahía Paraíso, (1981-82) 448, (1982) 458

Bahía Thetis, (1956-57) 307

Bailey, Andrew David, (1963-64) 355

Bailey, Lawrence, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568

Baker, Martin John, (1977-78) 414, (1979-80) 428, (1980-81) 438, (1981-82) 449, (1982-83) 462

Baker, Wentworth E., (1905-06) 129, (1910-11) 153

Bakutis, Frederick E., (1965-66) 363

Balaenoptera musculus, 156

Balaga, José Luis Arria, (1974-75) 401

Balashov, Yevgeniy K., (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557

Balcom, Reuben, (1901-02) 123, (1905-06) 129

Balcom, Sprott H., (1910-11) 153

Baldoni, Emilio, (1927) 217

Balguerías Guerra, Eduardo, (1986-87) 501

Balleny Islands, 248, 432, 443, 475, 557, 567

Balliana, Enzo H., (1954-55) 293

Ballou, Justin L., (1965-66) 363

Baltazar, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599

Baltrusch, F., (1975-76) 406

Bancroft, Stephen, (1988-89) 511

Banshû-maru 2, (1976-77) 418

Barbadori, Atilio A., (1957-58) 317

Barclay, G., (1818-19) 59

Barclay, (1799-1801) 35

Barde, Erich, (1991-92) 538, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999- 2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Barff Peninsula, 395, 397, 498

Barker, Nicholas John, (1980-81) 440, (1981-82) 450, (1982) 459, 460

Barlas, William, (1920-21) 189, (1928-41+) 227, 238

Barney, Griffin, (1799-1801) 35

Barquin, Oscar Julio, (1981-82) 448

Barracouta HMS, (1896) 121

Barratt, David Alfred, (1952-53) 283

Barrére, José Almejeiras, (1970) 380

Barrett-Hamilton, Gerald Edwin Hamilton, (1913-14+) 171

Barros, Carlos Alberto, (1977-78) 413 Barry Island, 246, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 628

Barton, Henry, (1801-02) 46

Barton, Holden, (1815-17) 54, (1817-18) 57

Barton, Timothy John, (1996-97) 576, (1997-98) 584, (1998-99) 590

Barton, Timothy Roy, (1989-90) 518

Basberg, Bjo/rn, (1989-90) 520, (1992-93) 545, (1996-97) 577

Base A, 256, 316, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 630

Base B, 256, 316

Base D, 316, 535

Base E, 316

Base F, 316

Base G, 316

Base H, 316

Base J, 311, 316

Base KG, 337

Base M, 268, 316

Base N, 296

Base O, 302, 316

Base R, 403

Base T, 337

Base V, 283

Base W, 302, 316, 575

Base Y, 296, 316, 575

Base Z, 327

Bashkiriya, (1981-82) 453

Basile, (1979-80) 433

Bateman, Adrian Paul, (1989-90) 518

Battiston, Francesco, (1985-86) 492

Baturkin, Yevgeniy, (2000-01) 603

Bayard, (1909-11*) 147

Baykal, (1983-84) 473

Beacon, William, (1799-1801) 33, (1801-02) 43, (1814-15) 52, (1819- 20) 63

Beagle Start II, (1994-95) 568

Beak Island, 296

Beal, Alister Francis, (1921) 192

Bear of Oakland, (1933-35) 244

Beardmore Glacier, 351

Bearne, Noel, (1974-75) 400, (1975-76) 405

Beary, William J., (1983-84) 474

Beatrice L. Corkum, (1901-02) 123, (1905-06) 129

Beauchêne Island, 50, 350, 360, 410

Beaufoy, (1821-22) 70, (1822-24) 75

Beer, Nicholas Anthony, (1991-92) 535, (1992-93) 543, (1993-94) 552, (1995-96) 570, (1996-97) 575

Beig, A. N., (1990-91) 530

Beis, Carlos, (1958-59) 326

Belgian yacht cruise, 425, 467, 568

Belgrano II, 628

Belinda, Mount, 616

Bell, Keith Roland, (1958-59) 327

Bell, Martin Hutchinson, (1996-97) 575

Belle-Étoile, (1985-86) 492

Bellingsgausen, 383, 388, 453, 473, 628

Bellingshausen Island, 341

Bellingshausen Sea, 213, 222, 231, 251, 416, 418, 430, 449

Bellingshausen, Fabian Gottlieb Benjamin von, (1819-22) 62, 66, 473

Beluga, Valeriy, (1992-93) 547, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572

Belyayev, Boris Mikhaylovich, (1970-72) 383

Bely, Oleg, (1978-79) 425, (1985-86) 492, (1986-87) 503, (1987-88) 509, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999- 2000) 599, (2000-01) 604

Bence-Trower, Peter Alexander, (1967-68) 371

Benkert, William Michael, (1965-66) 363

Berg, Carl E., (1926) 211

Berg, Kapt., (1932-33) 242

Berkner Island, 473, 553

Bermuda yacht cruise, 503, 559

Bernadskiy, Yevgeniy Anatol’yevich, (1981-82) 453

Bernasconi, Angel L., (1956-57) 307

Bernhard Kellermann, (1977-78) 417

Bernhart, A. D., (1980-81) 442

Berntsen, So/ren, (1907-08) 137

Berserk, (1998-99) 593

Bertodano, Aurelio C. López de, (1954-55) 293

Bertrab Nunatak, 422, 427

Beset vessel, 124, 158, 175, 301, 344, 488

Betelgeuse, (1991-92) 538

Beulac, Yves, (1980-81) 444

Beulakker, Eerde, (1991-92) 538

Bicairn, Horacio, (1982) 458, 459

Bigbury Bay HMS, (1953) 287

Biland, Norwegian dependency, 220

Billinghurst, Raúl O., (1957-58) 317

Bills Gulch, 300

Binnie, Edward Beveridge, (1914-27) 176

Biological Investigations of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks, 441, 442, 472, 480, 499, 513

Bird Island, 8, 97, 237, 328, 337, 340, 347, 351, 352, 366, 382, 385, 391, 395, 403, 410, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 458, 462, 470, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 628, 630

Bird Sound, 334

Bird, Frederick George, (1953-54) 290

Birmingham, University, 337, 349, 370, 404, 439

Birth, 168, 238, 263, 413, 420, 422Biscoe Bay, 296

Biscoe Islands, 81, 119, 300, 376

Biscoe, John, (1830-33) 81

Bishop and Clerk Islands, 237

Bishop, James Francis, (1973-74) 395

Bismarck Strait, 356

Bi-Polar Botanical Project, 370

Bjelke, Rolf, (1982-83) 467, (1983-84) 476, (1990-92) 532

Bjurstedt, Eric, (1993-94) 557, (1995-96) 572, (1997-98) 585, (1998- 99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Black Coast, 497

Black Rock, 65, 121, 392

Black, Harry Preston, (1956-57) 308

Black, Robert, (1821-22) 70, 71

Blackburn, John Fulford, (1950-51) 274, (1958-59) 327

Blaiklock Island, 311

Blaiklock, Kenneth Victor, (1956-58) 305

Blake, J. S., (1965-66) 363

Blake, Peter, (2000-01) 604

Blight, Christopher J., (1982) 459

Blue Whale, 156

Bluthgen, Adolfo V. R., (1954-55) 293

Blüthgen, R., (1914) 174

Blythe, Thomas, (1793-94) 25

Bobruyskles, (1970-71) 383

Boersma, Henk, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999- 2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Boese, M., (1980-81) 441

Boffi, Jorge Alberto, (1956-57) 307

Bohemen, Hein D. van, (1986-87) 498

Boimard, Pascal, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586

Bolino, Zenón Saúl, (1956-57) 307

Bonino, Carlos A., (1954-55) 293

Bonner, William Nigel, (1953-55) 290, (1958-59) 328, (1990-91) 527, (1992) 541

Borchgrevink Nunatak, 283

Borge Bay, 190

Borgmassivet, 472

Borland, Daniel, (1949-50) 268, 270, (1950-51) 275, (1951-52) 278, (1952-53) 283, (1953-54) 290, (1954-55) 296, (1955-56) 302, (1956- 57) 311, (1957-58) 319, (1958-59) 327, (1959-60) 331, (1960-61) 337, (1961-62) 342, (1962-63) 349, (1963-64) 355, (1964-65) 359, (1965-66) 362, (1966-67) 365, (1967-68) 369, (1968-69) 375

Bosse, Matthias, (2000-01) 603

Boston, George Duncan, (1957-58) 319

Bottomley, Alec, (1966-67) 365

Boumphrey, Robert Staveley, (1949) 267

Bounty Islands, 81

Bouvet de Lozier, Jean-Baptiste-Charles, (1738-39) 3

Bouvet I, (1964*) 358

Bouveto/ya, 8, 50, 76, 102, 108, 177, 209, 210, 220, 231, 251, 261, 436, 443, 465, 472, 483, 529, 578

Bouyx, Yves, (1995-96) 573

Bowden, Ian Rodney, (1971-72) 387

Bowler, Robert Edward, (1982-83) 462

Bowman Coast, 359

Brabant Island, 302, 400

Brandal, Bernt A., (1956-57) 313

Bransfield Strait, 275, 278, 282, 330, 342, 359, 365

Bransfield, Edward, (1819-20) 66

Bransfield RRS, (1970-71) 382, (1971-72) 385, (1972-73) 391, (1973- 74) 395, (1974-75) 399, (1975-76) 403, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414, (1978-79) 423, (1979-80) 428, 429, (1980-81) 438, (1981-82) 449, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987-88) 505, (1988-89) 511, (1989-90) 518, (1990- 91) 525, (1991-92) 535, (1992-93) 543, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562, (1995-96) 570, (1996-97) 575, (1997-98) 583, (1998-99) 589, (1999-2000) 596, (2000-01) 601, (2001-02) 607

Brasilian yacht cruise, 531, 538, 548, 568, 573, 579, 586, 593, 599, 604, 609

Bråvold, Hjalmar, (1932-33) 242

Bray, Capt., (1832) 81

Bremen, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Bretscher, Eric, (1995-96) 573

Bridgeman Island, 70, 75

Briggs, Raymond S., (1962-63) 351

Brightman, Capt., (1799-1801) 32, (1801-02) 45

Brilliant HMS, (1982) 459

Brisbane, Matthew, (1822-24) 75, (1828-29) 79

Bristol Island, 247, 300, 301

Britain, 8, 81, 140, 256, 303

Britannia HMY, (1956-57) 309, 310, 311

British Antarctic Expedition [Terra Nova], (1910-13) 351

British Antarctic Survey, 134, 256, 333, 342, 347, 349, 350, 352, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 370, 375, 377, 378, 382, 385, 387, 391, 392, 395, 397, 399, 400, 403, 405, 410, 413, 414, 423, 428, 431, 434, 438, 449, 452, 456, 457, 458, 462, 470, 480, 488, 493, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 553, 562, 570, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 606, 607, 610, 611, 613, 617, 619, 620, 622, 623, 625, 626, 629, 630, 633

British Antarctic Territory, 257, 299, 342, 346, 349, 350, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 375, 376, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 399, 403, 410, 414, 423, 424, 428, 438, 440, 449, 462, 470, 480, 485, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570, 575, 583, 589, 596

British Antarctic Territory Meteorological Service, 270

British botanical expedition, 370

British Broadcasting Corporation, 403, 438, 447, 471, 546 British Commonwealth, 309

British Empire, 309

British enterprise, 127

British expedition, 75, 81, 161, 175, 193, 209, 214, 222, 226, 231, 233, 237, 244, 248, 251, 274, 279, 291, 303, 304, 305, 314, 315, 328, 362, 431, 452, 521, 534, 541

British Expedition to Graham Land, 193

British fisheries voyage, 556, 581

British Geodetic Satellite Survey, 372

British geophysics voyage, 386, 396, 404, 439

British Graham Land Expedition (1934-37) 246

British naval expedition, 8, 256, 408

British naval mountaineering expedition, 336

British naval operation, 253, 459, 460, 463, 469

British naval voyage, 121, 133, 181, 188, 192, 239, 250, 252, 256, 262, 265, 267, 273, 282, 287, 289, 294, 301, 310, 318, 330, 334, 335, 341, 350, 356, 360, 366, 371, 376, 379, 387, 392, 397, 400, 405, 411, 415, 424, 429, 440, 450, 471, 478, 481, 489, 506, 512, 519, 526, 536, 544, 545, 553, 560, 563, 571, 576, 577, 584, 590, 597, 602, 608, 612, 618, 621, 624, 627, 631

British oceanographic voyage, 513

British operation, 527

British recreational visit, 558

British Royal visit, 309, 627

British sealing voyage, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 33, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 79

British services expedition, 360, 361, 411, 450, 451, 487

British South Georgia Expedition, 295

British Virgin Islands yacht cruise, 509, 531, 538, 548, 559, 568, 573, 579, 586, 593, 599, 604, 609

British voyage, 11, 84, 85, 86, 88, 118, 200, 218, 224, 228, 240, 243

British whaling enterprise, 142, 145, 146, 157, 179

British whaling voyage, 14, 16, 17, 20, 21, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 191, 249, 258, 358, 374

British yacht cruise, 367, 444, 503, 509, 538, 549, 568, 573, 579, 586, 593, 599, 604, 609

Brockloe, H., (1870-71+) 92

Brood, Krister, (1986) 496

Brooklyn Museum, 166

Brotherhood, John Rowland, (1965-66) 362

Brown, Douglas William, (1967-68) 369

Brown, James, (1829-31) 80

Brown, John, (1818-19) 59, (1819-20) 62

Brown, Norman Roy, (1955-56) 302, (1956-57) 311, (1957-58) 319

Brown, Warren James, (1986-87) 503, (1993-94) 559

Browne, Rodney De Forges, (1984) 478

Bruhns, Ernst, (1925) 207, (1928) 223

Brune, Ewald Heinrich, (1980-81) 441

Brunt Ice Shelf, 303, 327, 331, 337, 342, 349, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 375, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 399, 403, 410, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 462, 470, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 628, 630

Brusa, Mario A., (1977-78) 413

Brutus, (1911-12*) 157

Bryant, Barry William, (1995-96) 571

Bryant, Charles, (1823) 77

Bryde and Dahl Hvalfangst Selskab, 141

Bryde, Ingvald, (1908) 141

Brzezinski, Tadeusz, (1977-78) 419

Bucentaur, (1907-08) 137

Buchanan, Peter William, (1968-69) 376, (1969-70) 379

Buddington, James Waterman, (1874-75) 95, (1875-76) 100, (1876-77) 103, (1877-78) 105, (1891-92) 117

Buddington, Sydney O., (1869) 89

Budretskiy, Arnol’d Bogdanovich, (1970-72) 383

Buenos Aires, Museo de Historia Natural, 201

Bulatov, Lev Valer’yanovich, (1983-85) 473

Bulgarian expedition, 505

Bulgarian fishing voyage, 560

Bull, Celia, (2001-02) 609

Bunger Hills, 316

Buraschi, Agusto César, (1979-80) 427

Burdwood Bank, 233

Burgan, Michael Jeremy Stuart, (1994-95) 562, (1997-98) 583, (1998- 99) 589, (1999-2000) 596

Burghead Bay HMS, (1952) 282, (1954-55) 294

Burkitt, David Michael, (1975-76) 403

Burley, Malcolm Keith, (1964-65) 361

Burmistrov, Yuriy Georgiyevich, (1983-84) 473

Burrows, Brutus, (1838-39) 82

Burton Island USS, (1965-66) 363

Busen 10, (1959*) 329

Busen 6, (1951-52) 277, (1956*) 306

Busen 8, (1956*) 306

Busen Peninsula, 560

Busen VII, (1927) 219

Bushell, Anthony Norman, (1969-70) 378

Bustamante y Guerra, José, (1789-94) 18

Butler, Adrian Rothwell Lane, (1957-58) 318

Butler, Kenelm Somerset Pierce, (1951-54) 280

Buttercup, (1992-93) 548

Buxton, Lucinda Catherine, (1981-82) 452

Buyanov, Gennadiy Sergeyevich, (1983-84) 473

Byers Peninsula, 525

Byrd, 316, 351, 363

Byrd [II], 474

Cabanillas, Rubén H., (1981) 446

Cabo San Roque, (1974-75) 401

Cabriel, Frank, (1870+) 90

Cachalote, (1909) 139

Cadete Edgardo Luis Guillochon, 307

Caeiro, Manuel Ríos, (1986-87) 501

Caiman, (1982) 456

Caird Coast, 175

Calcaterra USS, (1965-66) 363

Caledonian Star, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Callas, (1993-94) 559

Callibistris, (1999-2000) 599

Calmón, Marcos Alberto, (1979-80) 427

Camana, (1907-11*) 137

Cameron, Henry Alan David, (1958-59) 327

Campbell Island, 83, 93, 316, 442, 443, 454, 466, 475, 476, 515, 530, 531, 547, 557, 559, 567

Campe, Joachim, (1995-96) 573

Canada, (1799-1800*) 30

Canadian sealing voyage, 120, 123, 129, 136, 153

Canadian yacht cruise, 538, 579, 593, 604, 605, 609

Candido de Lasala, (1976-77) 409, (1977-78) 413

Candlemas Island, 337, 341, 356, 466

Cape Colony sealing voyage, 45

Capitán Arturo Prat, 316

Capitán Caillet Bois, 293

Capitán Estivariz, 300

Capurro, Luis R. A., (1957-58) 317

Caradec, Alain, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1994- 95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Carbone, José C. T., (1956-57) 307

Carbonetti, Nestor, (1978-79) 422

Carcelles, Alberto, (1923) 197, (1926) 211, (1926-27) 212, (1929-30) 230

Cardis, Philippe, (1982-83) 467

Carey, William Melvin, (1929-31) 231, (1931-33+) 237

Carl, (1907-08) 137

Carnegie, (1915-16) 177

Carpenter, Mark, (2000-02) 605

Carr, Timothy, (1991-92) 538, (1992-2006) 549

Carré, Olivier, (1993-94) 559

Carrick, James, (1846) 84

Carrizo, Juan Carlos, (1980-81) 437

Carro, Ignacio, (1958-59) 326, (1977-78) 413

Carroll, Alan Michael, (1954-55) 296, (1955-56) 302

Carse, Verner Duncan, (1951-52) 279, (1951-57) 324, (1953-54) 291, (1955-56) 304, (1956-57) 315, (1961) 338, (1973) 394

Carter, Hamilton, (1992-93) 546

Carter, Jeremy Hugh, (1974-75) 399

Casela, Hugo Carlos, (1980-81) 437

Casellas, Alberto Oscar, (1978-79) 422

Casey, 628

Castberg, Christopher, (1906) 131, (1907-08) 138

Castor, (1893-94) 119

Castorina, Rodolfo C., (1958-59) 326

Cayman Islands yacht cruise, 568, 586, 609

Cemetery, 84, 90, 92, 116, 126, 137, 138, 141, 146, 147, 157, 194, 225, 283, 348

Ceñal, Manuel Bautista, (1979-80) 427

C. Flat Scherzo, (1991-92) 533, 538

Chacabuco, 300

Chakí, Alfonso, (1942) 254

Champi, (1978-79) 425

Chang Cheng, 628

Chanson de Lecq, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568

Chaplin, James Harvey, (1949-50) 268

Chaplin, John Miller, (1928-30) 226

Charcot, 316

Charles Darwin RRS, (1988-89) 511

Charles, (1799-1800) 31

Chatham Islands, 81

Chattahoochee USNS, (1962-63) 351

Cheal, Joseph John, (1950-51) 275

Cheseboro, Walter Scott, (1880-81) 107

Chile, 5

Chilean Air Force, 454

Chilean enterprise, 127

Chilean fishing voyage, 560

Chilingarov, Artur Nikolayevich, (1971-73) 388

Chinn, Eric James, (1961-62) 342, (1962-63) 349, (1966-67) 365, (1969-70) 378

Chiriguano, (1954-55) 293, (1955-56) 300, (1956-57) 307, (1957-58) 317, (1958-59) 326

Chloephaga picta, 149, 322

Christensen, Lars; expeditions, 213, 220

Christian Salvesen and Company, 142, 145, 146, 161, 184, 247, 259, 284, 358, 374, 426, 527, 540

Christophersen, N., (1911-12) 159

Chrysalide, (1994-95) 568

Church, Capt., (1907-08) 136

Church, Erastus, (1880-82) 108

Church, Henry H., (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Cinematography, 175, 184

Cinq Gars Pour, (1982) 456

Circe, Dome, 453, 473, 628

Circumnavigation (broken) Antarctica, 8, 66, 81 Circumnavigation, Antarctica, 177, 237, 284, 578, 579, 593

Civil Commissioner, Falkland Islands Dependencies, 463, 471, 481

Clapmatch, (1799-1802) 36

Clapp, Eric Christopher John, (1959-60) 331

Clarence Island, 209, 213

Clark, Gerald S., (1984-86) 483

Clark, William, (1790-92) 21

Clarke, Graham Christian, (1983-84) 472

Clarke, Ian William Noel, (1952-53) 283

Clarke, Philip Ian, (1990-91) 525

Clarkson, Peter David, (1968-69) 375

Clayton, Charles Allen, (1969-70) 378

Cleary, Peter James, (1983-84) 470

Clement, Colin Cowan, (1955-56) 302, (1956-57) 311

Clement, Keith, (1990-91) 531

Clements, Richard, (1991) 534

Clennel, Jonathan James Ossory, (1962-63) 349

Clerk, Edward, (1798-99) 28, (1800-01) 40

Clerke Rocks, 8, 342, 346, 392

Cleveland, Benjamin Dunham, (1908-09) 143, 144, (1912-13) 166

Clifford, Geoffrey Miles, (1947-48) 262, (1948-49) 266, (1949) 267, (1949-50) 268, (1950) 273, (1952) 282, (1953-54) 289

Clipper Adventurer, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Clothier Harbour, 72

Cloud Nine, (1987-88) 509, (1991-92) 538

Cloughley, Maurice, (2000-01) 604

Coats, 359

Coats Land, 293, 303, 305, 628

Cockburn Island, 83

Cocorli, (1985-86) 492

Coelho, Gonçalo, (1501-02) 1

C.O.J., (1911-12) 157

Colbert, Philip, (1983-84) 474

Colding, Sue-Anne, (1991-92) 538

Cole, Maurice John, (1968-69) 375, (1969-70) 378, (1970-71) 382, (1971-72) 385, (1975-76) 403, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414, (1978- 79) 423, (1979-80) 428, (1980-81) 438, (1981-82) 449, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987-88) 505, (1988-89) 511, (1989-90) 518, (1990-91) 525, (1991- 92) 535, (1992-93) 543, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562, (1995-96) 570, (1996-97) 575

Coleman, Dennis Joseph, (1959-69) 333

Coli, Carlos A., (1976-77) 409

Collet, Jean, (1991-92) 538

Colman, Jeremy Glyn, (1989-90) 518

Colonial Office, 171, 196

Columbia Land, (1989-90) 518

Columbia, (1799-1801) 32

Columbus Caravelle, (1990-91) 537, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557

Comandante Ferraz, 628

Combined station, 427, 437, 448

Comer, George, (1885-86) 113, 114, (1887-89) 115

Commissioner, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, 485, 489, 550, 560, 569, 574, 580, 595, 600, 606

Commonwealth Bay, 443, 455, 492, 548, 567

Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 300, 301, 305, 314, 316, 382

Compañia Argentina de Pesca, 125, 126, 128, 130, 134, 135, 150, 268, 270

Conca Italia, 409

Concord, (1799-1802) 36

Concordia, 628

Conqueror HMS, (1982) 459

Conservation regulation, 13, 150, 164, 170, 402

Consort, (1905) 122, 127

Cook, Capt., (1790-92) 21

Cook, James, (1772-75) 2, 8

Cooper Bay, 54

Cooper Island, 537

Cooper, John, (1991-92) 535

Copemar 1, (1990-91) 527

Coplin, Capt., (1813-14) 51

Corbeta Uruguay, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448

Corbett, J., (1999-2000) 599

Cordella, (1993-94) 556

Cormer, Enrique [Henry] (1756) 5

Corneliszoon Schouten, Willem, (1615-16) 2

Cornell, James, (1998-99) 593

Corner, Roderick William McLean, (1963-64) 355

Coronation Island, 302, 311, 342

Coronda, (1908) 142, (1909) 149

Correira, José Gonçalves, (1913-14) 172, (1914-15) 172

Cosolari, Gloudio, (1997-98) 586

Costa Palma, Gerónimo, (1924) 201

Coste, James W., (1980-81) 442

Cotton, John Philip Douglas, (1964-65) 359

Cotton, Peter David, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480

Coulter, R. W., (1965-66) 363

Cousins, Michael John, (1964-65) 359

Couzins, Capt., (1832) 81

Coward, John Francis, (1982) 459

Cox, Nicholas Ievers, (1990-91) 525

Cragie-Halkett, Lyle, (1990-91) 527

Crane, Sean Brian, (1987-88) 505

Cranney, Mark Sidney, (1988-89) 511

Crewes, James Francis Reginald, (1950) 273

Cristo Redentor, 293

Croatian yacht cruise, 579Croix Saint-Paul II, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999- 2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Croix Saint-Paul, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538

Cromarty, Duncan, (1998-99) 591

Croustet, (1990-91) 531, (1996-97) 579

Crowe, Richard, (1996-97) 579, (2001-02) 609

Crown Agents, 348

Crozet, 48, 58, 115, 384, 419, 443, 483, 492, 538, 628

Cruz de Froward, (1988-89) 515

Cuban expedition, 473

Cudennec, Patrick, (1981-82) 455

Cumberland Bay, 147, 178, 188, 318, 615

Cunningham, John Crabbe, (1959-60) 331, (1960-61) 337, (1961-62) 342, (1963-64) 355, (1964-65) 359

Curlew, (1991-92) 538, (1992-2003) 549

Czechoslovak yacht cruise, 538, 548

C-Lise II, (1996-97) 579

Dagless, John Edward, (1957-58) 319

Dagmar Aaen, (1999-2000) 599

Dahu, (1992-93) 548

Daisy, (1908-09) 143, 144, (1912-13) 166, 172

Dalgliesh, David Geoffrey, (1955-56) 303

Damien II, (1977-79) 420, (1982-83) 467, (1983-84) 476, (1985-88) 493, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 576, 579

Damien, (1970-72) 384, (1972-73) 393

Damoy Point, 403, 414, 488, 497, 511

Danco Coast, 275, 301, 302, 311

Danco Island, 302, 311, 316, 319, 327

Danjoun, Jean-Pierre, (1990-91) 531

Daphne, (1991-92) 537

Darbel Bay, 231

Darde, Christine, (1992-93) 548

Dare, Andrew, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Dark, William Kenneth, (1986-87) 497, (1989-90) 518

Dartmouth Point, 403

Dartmouth HMS, (1920) 188

Dartnall, Herbert John Graham, (1974-75) 399

Darwin, (1971) 200

Dautert, Erich, (1931) 235

Davel, Héctor Luis, (1980-81) 437

Davey, Martin Clive, (1993-94) 552, (1995-96) 570

Davidoff, Constantino Sergio, (1979) 426, (1981-82) 448, (1982) 456, 457

Davidson, E. A., (1962-63) 351

Davies, Robin Albert, (1975-76) 403

Davila, Ricardo Luis, (1980-81) 437

Davis, 308, 316, 354, 628

Davis, John, (1802-06) 49

Day, John, (1825) 78

Daynes, Roger, (1972-73) 391

De Vivie, Rémi, (1994-95) 568

Deacon, George Edward Raven, (1935-37) 248

D’Agostino, Alberto Máximo, (1979, 427

Deakin, D. L., (1990-91) 526

Death, 5, 54, 58, 81, 82, 84, 90, 92, 97, 115, 116, 124, 131, 137, 138, 146, 147, 152, 157, 158, 169, 171, 180, 187, 193, 194, 210, 223, 227, 229, 237, 245, 283, 293, 300, 301, 307, 311, 317, 319, 326, 331, 337, 348, 349, 359, 362, 363, 403, 409, 422, 427, 428, 438, 449, 453, 458, 588, 611

Debenham Islands, 246

Decepción, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 448

Deception Island, 83, 163, 210, 224, 236, 246, 253, 256, 266, 268, 275, 278, 282, 283, 285, 287, 289, 290, 293, 296, 300, 302, 307, 311, 316, 317, 319, 326, 327, 331, 337, 342, 349, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 375, 376, 379, 382, 391, 397, 497, 505, 532

Deception Island incident, 287

Delaney, Simon Neil, (1986-87) 497

Delano, Thomas, (1786-88) 12

Delignières, Hugues, (1992-93) 548, (1997-98) 586, (2001-02) 609

Delphine, (1980-81) 444

Demel, Uli, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Deneb of Ryde, (1997-98) 586

Denning, Kevin, (1994-95) 565

D’Onofrio, Ricardo Abel, (1977-78) 413

Derrotero Argentino; Antártida y Archipelagos del Sur, 323

Descubierta, (1789-94) 18

Detaille Island, 302, 310, 311, 316, 319, 327

Dethlevs, Arne, (1997-98) 585

Deutschland, (1911-12) 158, (1913) 169

Dewar, Graham James Alexander, (1961-62) 342

Diana, (1814-15) 52, (1815-16) 53

Dias, (1942) 254, (1974*) 364

Diaz Cove, 225

Díaz, Emilio L., (1951-52) 278, (1955-56) 300

Díaz, Leopoldo Diamante, (1981-82) 448

Dick Smith Explorer, (1981-82) 455

Dickson, Andrew, (1999-2000) 597

Dickson, John Quayle, (1914) 173

Didier, L., (1999-2000) 599

Diebold, Bernhardt, (1990-91) 531

Diego Ramírez, Islas, 2, 18, 75, 76

Diel, (1990-91) 531

Diez, Juan Carlos, (1980-81) 437

Dijk, J. W, (1999-2000) 598 Dingle, William Robert John, (1956-57) 308

Dinn, Michael Ernest, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562

Dione Star, (2001-02) 609

Dione, (1980-81) 444

Directorate of Colonial Surveys, 271

Directorate of Overseas Surveys, 324

Director, (1894-95) 120

Discovery Committee, 202

Discovery Expeditions, 196, 209, 214, 221, 222, 226, 231, 233, 237, 242, 244, 248, 251, 274

Discovery House, 199

Discovery II RRS, (1929-31) 231, (1931-33) 237, 242, (1933-35) 244, (1935-37) 248, 250, (1950-51) 274

Discovery, (1925-27) 209

Discovery RRS, (1984-85) 480, (1987-88) 505

Disko, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592

Diva, (1992-93) 548

División Antártida y Malvinas, 264

Dixon, J. B., (1960-61) 334, (1962-63) 350, (1963-64) 356

Dmitriyev, Nikolay Kuzmich, (1983-85) 473

Dobrovolski, Vladimir, (1924) 201

Dodo’s Delight, (1993-94) 559

Dog, 66, 70, 124, 158, 187, 217, 246, 296, 342, 552, 558, 568

Dollman, Harold, (1954-55) 296, (1962) 347

Dolores, (1790) 19

Dome Circe, 453, 473

Don Ernesto, (1925) 207, (1926) 211

Don Samuel, (1951*) 276

Don Vito, (1997-98) 586

Donovan, Jeremiah, (1956-57) 308

Dorian Bay, 293

Doris Bay, 91

Dougherty’s Island, 177

Doumer Island, 302

Dove, (1818-19) 60

Dow, Stephen Thomas, (1992-93) 543

Downey, James, (1816-18) 55

Downham, Noel Yorston, (1962-63) 349, (1963-64) 355

Dowson, Martin, (1985-86) 488

Dragon, (1801-02) 46

Drake Passage, 385, 386, 422, 509

Drakensburg SAS, (1990-91) 529

Dreβler, Klaus, (1971-72) 388

Driscall, C. E., (1962-63) 351

Dronning Maud Land, 313, 314, 342, 359, 362, 363, 441, 464, 515

Druzhnaya, 453, 473

Druzhnaya II, 453, 473

Dry Valleys, 363

Du Preez, Martin Johannes, (1961-62) 344

Dubois, Bertrand, (1979-80) 433, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1997- 98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599

Dudeney, John Richard, (1967-68) 369

Duell, Thomas, (1818-20) 61

Dufek Massif, 300

Duke of Kent, (1800-01) 40, (1801-02) 44

Dumont d’Urville, 316, 455, 628

Dumont d’Urville, Jules-Sébastien-César, (1837-40) 124

Dunbar, William, (1877-78) 104

Dundee Island, 409, 413

Dunlop, Samuel C., (1982) 459

Dupond, Philippe, (2001-02) 609

Dupuis, David, (2001-02) 609

Dupuis, Eric, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Durban HMS, (1932) 239

Duse Bay, 283, 293, 311

Duweker, Pertti, (1991-92) 538

Dyre, W. H., (1846+) 84

Dzwonkowski, Zbigniew, (1977-78) 419

E Base, 591, 632

Earl Spencer, (1799-1801) 33, (1801-02*) 43

Earl, William C., (1965-66) 363

Eastwind USCGC, (1962-63) 351, (1965-66) 363

E. B. Marvin, (1905-06) 129

Echo, (1818-19) 59, (1819-20) 62

Economic Survey of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, 408, 461

Ecureuil-Poitou-Charentes II, (1994-95) 568

Edda, (1908) 141

Edes, Samuel B., (1817-20) 58

Edinburgh, Duke of, (1956-57) 309, 310, 311

Edisto USS, (1962-63) 351

Edith R. Balcom, (1905-06) 129

Edvardsen, Emanuel, (1932) 240, (1933) 243

Edward Roy, (1901-02) 123

Eeden, Gert van, (1994-95) 565

Eights, 363

Eika, Sverre, (1929-31) 167

Eklund Islands, 266

Ekströmisen, 441, 464, 554, 564, 628

El’brus, (1970-71) 383

Eldred, Andrew J., (1882-84) 112, (1885-86) 113, (1886-87) 114

Elephant Island, 97, 175, 182, 193, 382, 411, 513, 524, 558, 579, 599

Elichiri-Behety, Ruperto L., (1916) 180

Eliza, (1800-01) 40

Elizabeth and Mary, (1825) 78

Elizabeth II, Queen, (1955-56) 303

Elizagaray, Jorge A., (1955-56) 300

Ellerslie, (1855) 85Ellieson, John, (1910+) 152

Elliott, Brian, (2000-01) 604

Elliott, Christopher Robert, (1975-76) 403, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414, (1979-80) 428, (1981-82) 449, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987-88) 505, (1988- 89) 511, (1989-90) 518, (1990-91) 525, (1991-92) 535, (1992-93) 543, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562, (1995-96) 570, (1996-97) 575, (1997-98) 583, (1998-99) 589, (1999-2000) 596

Ellis, John Medlicott, (1930) 232

Ellis-Evans, John Cynan, (1976-77) 410

Ellsworth, 316, 326

Ellsworth Land, 442, 474

Ellsworth Mountains, 423, 470

Ellsworth, Lincoln, (1935-36) 248

Elsehul, 225, 328, 403, 410, 431

Eltanin USS, (1962-63) 351, (1965-66) 363

Emerson, David, (1956-57) 311

Empire Venture, (1945-46) 258

Empire Victory, (1945-46) 258

En Avant, (1977*) 415

Endeavour HMNZS, (1956-57) 302

Endeavour, (1981-82) 455

Enderby Land, 81, 193, 383, 388, 418, 419, 453, 472, 473

Enderby, Messrs, (1808-09) 50, (1830-33) 81

Endurance, (1914-16*) 175

Endurance HMS, (1968-69) 376, (1968-91) 376, 536, 544, (1969-70) 379, (1971-72) 386, 387, (1972-73) 392, (1973-74) 394, 397, (1974- 75) 399, 400, (1975-76) 405, 408, (1976-77) 411, (1977-78) 415, (1978-79) 424, (1979-80) 429, (1980-81) 438, 440, (1981-82) 450, 458, (1982) 459, 460, (1982-83) 463, (1983-84) 471, (1984-85) 481, (1985-86) 489, (1987-88) 506, (1988-89) 512, (1989-90) 519, (1990- 91) 526

Endurance HMS, (1992-93) 544, (1993-94) 553, (1994-95) 563, (1995- 96) 571, (1996-97) 575, 576, (1997-98) 584, (1998-99) 590, (1999- 2000) 597, (2000-01) 602, (2001-02) 608, (2002-03) 612, (2003-04) 618, (2004-05) 621, (2005-06) 624, (2006-07) 627, (2007-08) 631

Enern, (1953) 288

English naval expedition, 4

English Rose VI, (1994-95) 568

English Strait, 366

English voyage, 3

Epsom, (1865) 88

Erebus and Terror Gulf, 124

Ernesto Tornquist, (1950*) 272

Erskine, Angus Bruce, (1956-57) 311

Esbensen, Wictor, (1910) 151

Escorihuela, Guillermo, (1977-78) 413

Esperanza, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448, 628

Espinet, Bernard, (1990-91) 531, (1996-97) 579

Espírito Santo, (1819-20) 65

Estados, Isla de los, 13, 83, 326

Esterhuizen, Pieter Benjimin, (1982-83) 465

Estevez, Anibal E., (1978-79) 422

Esther, (1846) 84

Estoniya, (1981-82) 453

Estrada, Guillermo, (1977-78) 413

Etcheves, Luis J., (1954-55) 293

Eubalaena australis, 582

Eugenio C, (1994-95) 567

Eureka, (1986-87) 500

Europa, (1990-91) 530, (1992-93) 547, (1994-95) 567, (2000-01) 604

Evans, Cape, 528

Evans, David, (1983) 469

Evensen, Carl Julius, (1893-94) 119

Evohe, (1993-94) 559, (2000-01) 604

Excess, (1998-99) 593

Exercise Green Skua, 487

Exercise Southern Ice, 560

Exeter HMS, (1938) 252

Explora, (1979-80) 430

Explorer, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Express Crusader, (1999-2000) 599

Express, (1885-86) 113, (1886-87) 114

Exquisite, (1831-32) 81

Fabricaciones Militares, 422, 448

Fadum, Morten, (1920-21) 190

Fairweather, Cape, 296

Falkland Harbour, 159

Falkland Islands, 1, 13, 14, 16, 18, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 47, 49, 58, 65, 70, 74, 75, 76, 78, 81, 82, 83, 99, 107, 108, 109, 110, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 129, 130, 131, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 145, 164, 170, 177, 181, 182, 186, 199, 200, 214, 216, 218, 222, 224, 237, 239, 246, 250, 264, 270, 273, 294, 309, 346, 356, 360, 371, 376, 378, 379, 380, 381, 384, 387, 389, 392, 397, 398, 400, 401, 405, 407, 408, 411, 412, 414, 415, 420, 421, 429, 432, 439, 440, 443, 450, 454, 456, 461, 463, 466, 467, 469, 471, 475, 476, 481, 482, 483, 485, 486, 489, 490, 492, 493, 496, 502, 508, 509, 515, 522, 530, 537, 538, 547, 548, 557, 567, 572, 573, 578, 579, 585, 586, 592, 593, 598, 599, 603, 604, 609

Falkland Islands and Dependencies Meteorological Service, 268, 270, 275, 278, 283, 290, 296, 302, 311, 319, 327, 331, 337, 342, 349, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 375

Falkland Islands Defence Force, 253

Falkland Islands Dependencies, 122, 130, 131, 135, 137, 138, 140, 141, 146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 157, 159, 160, 163, 170, 173, 176, 178, 179, 189, 190, 191, 195, 196, 199, 200, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 215, 218, 221, 224, 227, 228, 229, 231, 232, 237, 238, 240, 241, 243, 245, 248, 250, 255, 256, 257, 262, 266, 268, 270, 272, 273, 275, 276, 278, 280, 282, 283, 285, 287, 289, 290, 294, 296, 297, 299, 302, 303, 305, 309, 311, 314, 319, 322, 327, 331, 333, 337, 346, 348, 350, 371, 373, 376, 377, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 399, 402, 403, 408, 409, 410, 414, 423, 424, 428, 438, 440, 449, 461, 463, 468, 477, 484, 485

Falkland Islands Dependencies Government mail service, 200, 218, 224, 228, 240, 243

Falkland Islands Dependencies Research and Development Fund, 199

Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, 130, 256, 266, 268, 270, 275, 278, 282, 283, 290, 296, 301, 302, 310, 311, 318, 319, 327, 328, 330, 331, 335, 337, 340, 342

Falkland Islands Dependencies Conservation Ordinance, 402

Falkland Islands Gazette, 122

Falkland Islands Museum, 570

Falkland Islands yacht cruise, 579, 586, 593, 599, 604, 609

Falkland, (1911-12) 159

Falklands Protector, (1990-91) 525

Fanning, Edmund, (1800-02) 41

Fanning, William A., (1819-20) 65

Fantome, (1960-61*) 334

Faraday, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 462, 470, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570

Farewell, (1990-91) 531

Farman, Joseph Charles, (1957-58) 319

Farmer, Capt., (1795-96) 27

Farmer, Paul, (1994-95) 562

Farrell, J. Richard, (1994-95) 567, (1997) 582

Faughman, R. P., (1965-66) 363

Faure, Antonio L., (1978-79) 422

Favorite, (1801-03) 47

Federici, Vicente Manuel, (1980-81) 437

Fedor, Ralph, (1994) 558

Feldmann, Walter, (1980-81) 441

Felipe III, Rey, (1772-75) 2

Fenton, J. G., (1919) 187

Ferchaud, Charles, (1979-80) 433

Ferguson Bay, 160

Ferguson, Andrew Stuart, (1972-73) 391

Ferguson, David, (1912) 161

Fernande, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Fernandez, Carlos Alberto, (1976-77) 409

Fernandez, Jorge Antonio, (1980-81) 437

Fernandez, Juan Carlos, (1978-79) 422

Fernández, Luis C., (1957-58) 317

Feron, Patrick, (1987-88) 509

Ferro, Augustin, (1950) 272

FICOLS, 270

Filchner, 464, 564

Filchner Ice Shelf, 158, 293, 300, 305, 307, 316, 317, 326, 409, 413, 422, 430, 441, 453, 473, 553

Filchner, Wilhelm, (1911-12) 158

Filipich, Emilio, (1958-59) 326

Fiolent, (1986-87) 500

Fiona, (1998-99) 593

Firth, Charles Leslie, (1948-49) 265, (1949) 267

Fishing industry, 41, 132, 277, 312, 332, 343, 368, 382, 383, 388, 390, 406, 416, 417, 419, 436, 490, 500, 501, 525, 542, 555, 556, 560, 581, 588, 615

Fitch, Neil Anthony, (1980-81) 438

Fitch, Obediah, (1799-1801) 32

Fitzroy, (1943-44) 256

Fletcher, David Donald William, (1972-73) 391, (1973-74) 395, (1974- 75) 399, (1975-76) 403, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414, (1978-79) 423, (1980-81) 438

Flett, William Robert, (1943-44) 256

Fleur Australe, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1997-98) 586, (1999- 2000) 599

Fleuret, Arthur Isidore, (1942-51) 255, 268

Fleurus, (1924) 200, (1924-33) 200, (1927) 218, (1928) 224, (1929) 228, (1932) 240, (1933) 243

Flint, Robert B., (1965-66) 363

Flora Antarctica, 83

Florence, (1876-77) 101

Flying Fish, (1870-71) 92, (1874-75) 94, (1875-76) 98, 102, (1877-78) 104, (1878*) 104

F’Murr, (1983-84) 476

Foen, Jon, (1916-18) 167

Fold Island, 472

Folger, Mayhew, (1799-1802) 36

Foote, Brian Leonard Hobson, (1957-58) 319

Forbes, David Noel, (1959-60) 330, (1960-61) 335

Forbes, John Graham, (1947-48) 262

Forest, Didier, (1992-93) 548

Forn, Hernán Alvarez, (1987-88) 509

Forster, Peter Derek, (1959-60) 331

Forsyth, Eric, (1998-99) 593

Fort Austin RFA, (1982) 459

Fortuna Bay, 403

Fortuna, (1904) 126, (1916*) 178

Fossil Bluff, 337, 342, 349, 359, 362, 365, 369, 375, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 399, 403, 410, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 462, 470, 480, 488, 497, 511, 518, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620

Foster, Mount, 573Foster, Richard Arthur, (1955-56) 302, (1956-57) 311

Fothergill, Ian Leonard, (1960-61) 337, (1961-62) 342

Foucard, Alex, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1993- 94) 559, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599

Fox, Robert, (1983-84) 471

Fox, (1793-94) 25

Foyn Coast, 119, 359

Foyn, Svend, (1870) 87

Fraga, Eduardo H., (1956-57) 307

Français, (1903-05) 124

Francis Allyn, (1870-71) 90, (1887-89) 115

Francisco de Gurruchaga, (1976-77) 409, (1977-78) 413, (1978-79) 422, (1979-80) 427

Franklin, (1874-75) 95, (1877-78) 105

Fraser, Keiron P. P., (1999-2000) 596

Freaker, Ronald Clifford, (1937-38) 251

Freeman, Carl, (1982) 456

Freeman-Atwood, Julian, (1989-90) 521

French Passage, 318

French sealing voyage, 38

French voyage, 58

French yacht cruise, 384, 393, 420, 425, 433, 444, 445, 455, 456, 467, 476, 492, 493, 503, 509, 531, 532, 548, 559, 568, 573, 586, 593, 599, 604, 609

French, J., (1800) 39

Frerichs, Theodore, (1975-76) 406, (1977-78) 416

Freya, (1995-96) 573

Freydis, (1981-82) 455, (1990-92) 532, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1995-96) 573, (1997-98) 586

Fridtjof Nansen II, (1907-08) 138

Fridtjof Nansen Reef, 131

Fridtjof Nansen, (1906*) 131

Frithjof, (1903-04) 124

Frontier Spirit, (1990-91) 530, (1991-92) 537, (1992-93) 547, (1993- 94) 557

FS216, (1967-69) 372

Fuchs, Arved, (1999-2000) 599

Fuchs, Vivian Ernest, (1948-49) 266, (1955-58) 305

Fuller, Joseph Johnson, (1887-89) 115

Funcia, David O., (1955-56) 300

Funes, Héctor Fructuoso, (1980-81) 437

Furneaux, Tobias, (1772-75) 8

Fuscaldo, Julio Vicente, (1977-78) 413

Futuro, (1998-99) 593

Gaastra, Klaas, (2000-01) 604

Galard, Christian, (1999-2000) 599

Galazi, Pedro Luis, (1978-79) 422

Galindez Island, 283, 290

Galkin, Ryurik Maksimovich, (1981-83) 453

Gallad II, (1995-96) 573

Galliussi, Omar A., (1979-80) 427

Gambo, (2001-02) 609

Games, Jorge, (1919) 186

Gamma Island, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326

Ganiford, David, (1996-97) 575

Ganovex I, 430

Garcia de Nodal, Bartolomé, (1618-19) 2

Garcia de Nodal, Gonzalo, (1618-19) 2

García, Ismael Jorge, (1981-82) 448, (1982) 458

Gaul, Kenneth Mitchell, (1954-55) 296

Gazanion, Daniel, (1980-82) 445

Gazetteer of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, 299

Gazetteer of the British Antarctic Territory, 299

Gazetteer of the Falkland Islands Dependencies, 299

Geddes, Cape, 382

Gemini, (1977-78) 419

General Belgrano, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 409, 413, 414, 422

General Belgrano II, 427, 437, 448

General Belgrano III, 427, 437, 448

General Bernardo O’Higgins Riquelme, 316, 628

General José Artigas, 628

General San Martín, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448

General San Martín, (1954-55) 293, (1955-56) 300, (1956-57) 307, (1957-58) 317, (1958-59) 326, (1968) 369, (1976-77) 409, (1977-78) 413, (1978-79) 422

Gentile, Peter A., (1962-63) 351

Geomarine, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567

Georg Forster, 564

Georg von Neumayer, 441, 464, 472, 488, 529

George III, King, (1772-75) 8

George IV Sea, 75

George VI Sound, 246, 266, 378

George, David John, (1953-54) 290

Gerlach, Sebastian, (1980-81) 441

Gerlache Strait, 124, 296, 331, 356, 421

German Atlantic Expedition, 210

German expedition, 225, 554, 564

German International Polar Year Expedition, 110, 127

German South Polar Expedition [Deutschland] (1912-13) 158, 169

German Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 158

German yacht cruise, 531, 532, 559, 568, 573, 579, 586, 593, 594, 599, 604, 609

German (BRD) expedition, 430, 441, 449, 464

German (BRD) fisheries voyage, 406, 416

German (DDR) expedition, 388, 473 German (DDR) fisheries voyage, 417, 436

Gibbs, Peter John, (1980-81) 438

Gibbs, Peter McCausland, (1957-58) 319

Gibson-Hill, Carl Alexander, (1946) 259

Gilbert, Frederick W., (1894-95) 120, (1901-02) 123

Gilbert, Joseph, (1772-75) 8

Gilbert, Neil Stephen, (1991-92) 535, (1992-93) 543, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562

Gilbertson, Alasdair John, (1989-90) 518

Gill, Simon N, (1998-99) 589

Gillette, Edward, (1987-88) 509

Giménez, Gustavo Federico, (1977-78) 413

Giorgi, Horacio F., (1955-56) 300

Giovannini, Alberto P., (1957-58) 317

Giovinetto, Mario B., (1956) 300

Giró Tapper, Gustavo Adolfo, (1957-58) 317, (1958-59) 326

Giuntini, Ariel A., (1956-57) 307

Giusti, Alejandro José, (1957-58) 317, (1979-80) 427

Gizhiga, (1985-86) 490, (1986-87) 500

Gjertsen, Fredrich, (1932-33) 242

Gjesdal, Ludwig, (1970) 380

Glacier USCGC, (1980-81) 442

Glacier USS, (1958-59) 327, (1959-60) 331, (1962-63) 351, (1965-66) 363

Gladys, (1892) 118

Glasgow HMS, (1948-49) 265, (1949) 267

Glass, Robert H., (1870-71) 91

Gleaner, (1819-20) 64

Glen, The, 187

Globe I, (1925-26) 208

Globe II, (1925-26) 208

Globe III, (1925-26) 208

Glomar Challenger, (1974) 396

Glushkov, Sergey, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585

Go, Im-Gyung, (1993-94) 558

Gobey, Christopher Stafford, (1982-83) 462, 463

Godthul, 141

Goiot, Henri, (1980-81) 444

Golden Fleece, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999- 2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Golden West, (1874-75) 96, (1875-76) 99, (1876-77) 102, (1877-78) 104

Golikov, Piotr, (1992-93) 547, (1994-95) 567, (1996-97) 578, (1998- 99) 592

Golubev, Aleksandr, (2000-01) 603

Gomez, José, (1887-88+) 115

Gondwana, 564

Gondwana, (1990-91) 528

González Moreno, Jorge R., (1954-5, 293

González Moreno, Rodolfo Jorge, (1976-77) 409

Gooch, Anthony, (1996-97) 579, (1998-99) 593

Goodale, Brian, (1975-76) 403

Goodall-Copestake, Paul, (1982-83) 462

Gooden, Kenneth Reginald, (1950-51) 275

Goodfellow, Iain Thomas, (1990-91) 525

Goodridge, Charles Medyett, (1820-23) 77

Goodwin, Capt., (1919) 187

Goodwin, Derek, (1992-93) 543

Goss, Paul, (1996-97) 579

Gostnikov, Andrey, (1997-98) 585

Gotland II, (1980-81) 441

Gott, G. L., (1965-66) 363

Gough Island, 3, 38, 58, 78, 96, 115, 187, 193, 210, 214, 269, 309, 316, 331, 334, 337, 344, 380, 433, 465, 472, 491, 529, 565, 591, 628, 632

Gouon, Olivier, (1982) 456

Governor, Falkland Islands Dependencies, 218, 224, 250, 252, 262, 266, 267, 268, 273, 282, 289, 294, 296, 302, 309, 311, 350, 378, 385, 397, 415, 424, 429, 440, 450

Graham Coast, 311

Graham Land, 81, 140, 257

Graham, Robert Henry, (1961-62) 341, (1962-63) 350

Graham, William, (1814-15) 52, (1815-16) 53

Graham, (1982-83) 467

Granaderos, 307

Granat, (1925*) 205

Grand Sachem, (1816-18) 55, (1818-19) 59

Grande, Isla, 3

Grandidier Channel, 307

Grano/e, Konrad, (1932) 241

Granquist, Lars-Erik, (1979-80) 432

Grant, A., (1956) 302

Grant, E. G., (1962-63) 351

Grattan, J. C., (1959-60) 331

Gray Rover RFA, (1998) 588

Great Wall, 628

Greater Antarctica, 505

Gredsted, J., (1969-70) 378

Green Skua, Exercise, 487

Green, George Montague, (1965-66) 362

Green, Jack, (1986-87) 499

Green, John Robert, (1949-50) 268, (1950-51) 275

Greene, Daniel F., (1792-95) 24

Greene, Stanley Wilson, (1967-68) 370

Greenland expedition, 591

Greenpeace expedition, 528, 548

Greenwich Island, 316, 318, 319, 356

Gregorio Jerez, (1756) 5Greve, Ernst-Peter, (1993-94) 554, (1994-95) 564

Grigory Mikeev, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Grimshaw, Edward William, (1961-62) 342

Grinberg, Pascal, (1991-92) 533, 538, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Groussac, 293

Gruberfjella, 473

Grunehogna, 465

Grunschlager, Gustavo R., (1976-77) 409

Grytviken, 84, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 132, 133, 135, 136, 144, 156, 162, 167, 168, 194, 195, 201, 202, 205, 224, 227, 236, 258, 276, 348, 364, 400, 426, 527, 540, 541, 545, 549, 560, 569, 574, 580, 587, 610, 613, 619, 622, 625, 629, 633

Grytviken [base], 414

Guarani, (1958*) 326

Guaraní, 326

Guardia Nacional, (1905) 128, (1923) 197, 198, (1924) 201

Gubsch, Günter, (1980) 436

Guerrico, (1982) 458

Gull Lake, 333, 629

Gunther, Eustace Rolfe, (1930-32) 233

Guozden, Helvio N., (1956-57) 307

Guruceaga, Miguel J., (1956-57) 307

Gut, Carlos Alberto, (1979-80) 427

Guy, Anne-Lise, (1993-94) 559

Guyot, Nicolas-Pierre, (1756) 5

Guyver, Percy, (1955-56) 302, (1956-57) 311

Haakon VII, Kong, (1927) 220

Haazen, Henk, (1998-99) 593

Haigh, Duncan, (1993-94) 552

Haines, Robert W., (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Half Moon Island, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326

Hall, Geoffrey Penrose Dickinson, (1960-61) 334

Hall, John, (1974-75) 399, (1977-78) 414, (1978-79) 423, (1981-82) 449, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987-88) 505, (1988-89) 511, (1990-91) 525

Hall, Stephen, (1799-1802) 38

Hallet, Elijah, (1838-39) 82

Hallet, Roland S., (1838-39) 82

Hallett, Cape, 316, 351, 363

Halley, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 462, 470, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 628, 630

Halley Bay, 303, 305, 314, 316, 320, 327, 331, 337, 342, 349, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 375, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 399, 403, 410

Halley, Edmond, (1699-1700) 4

Hallgrenskarvet, 565

Hall-Wright, Denis Guy Douglas, (1953) 287

Hamilton, Derek William, (1979-80) 428

Hamilton, James Erik, (1926-27) 214, (1927-28) 221

Hammerstad, Thorleif, (1951) 276

Hammond, Mark, (1983-84) 476, (1988-89) 515, (1990-91) 531, (1991- 92) 538, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567

Hannemann, Rüdiger, (1987-88) 508, (1997-98) 585

Hanseatic, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Hansen Point, 253

Hansen, Daniel, (1921) 191

Hansen, Hans Olaf, (1927) 219

Hansen, Hans P., (1925-26) 208, (1926-27) 212

Hansen, Knut B., (1968) 373

Hansen, Thomas H. (1907-11) 137

Hanusse Bay, 310

Happel, Otto, (1995-96) 573

Harding, Christopher, (1998-99) 593

Hardy, Alister Clavering, (1926-27) 214

Harkness, Robert Samuel Matthew, (1960-61) 337

Harpon, (1912) 165, (1914) 174

Harrison, Brian, (1980-81) 444, (2001-02) 609

Harrison, Paul Robert Helfrich, (1953-54) 289

Harrison, Peter, (1991-92) 537

Harrison, Robert Bernard, (1959-60) 331

Hartmann, Olaf, (1990-91) 530, (2000-01) 603

Harwood, Henry Harwood, (1938) 252

Haskard, Cosmo Dugal Patrick Thomas, (1969-70) 378

Hatfield, B. H., (1892) 118

Hattersley-Smith, Geoffrey Francis, (1948-49) 266, (1980) 434

Hauge, Ole, (1961) 338

Havfruen, (1911*) 160

Hawkesbury, Lord, (1788) 13

Hawkins, Geoffrey A. B., (1941) 253

Hawthorn, George Ryans, (1978-79) 423

Hayes Glacier, 388

Heard Island, 274, 384, 483, 538, 585

Hecate HMS, (1982-83) 462, 463

Hedderley, Norman Alexander, (1955-56) 302, (1959-60) 331

Heimefrontfjella, 359, 362

Heksegryta, 565

Hektoria, (1932-33) 242

Helen Baird, (1856) 86

Helena Cristina, (2001-02) 609

Helle, Sigurd Gunnarson, (1956-57) 313, (1957-58) 320

Hemmen, George Ethelbert, (1953-54) 290

Hemmings, Alan Dudley, (1981-82) 449

Hempel, Gotthilf, (1975-76) 406, (1977-78) 416, (1980-81) 441, (1982- 83) 464

Hendly, John, (1992-93) 548 Henkes Island, 307

Hennebert, Michel, (1999-2000) 599

Henniker-Heaton, Herbert, (1937) 250, (1938) 252

Henriksen, Henrik Nicolai, (1908) 142, (1909) 145, 146

Henry, B. R., (1962-63) 351

Henry, Clifford D., (1965-66) 363

Henry, (1822-23) 74

Henryk Arctowski, 628

Herald HMS, (1984) 478

Hercules, (1799-1800) 30

Hércules, (1952) 281

Herdman, Henry Franceys Porter, (1950-51) 274

Herkules, (1907-08) 138, (1920-21) 189, 190

Hermione HMS, (1986) 495

Hero, (1799-1801) 32

Hero, (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Herrera, Luis Alberto, (1981-82) 448

Hersilia, (1819-20) 65

Hertha, (1893-94) 119

Hesbrook, Richard Stephen, (1969-70) 378

Hesketh, Ross Vernon, (1954-55) 296

Hetairos, (1995-96) 573

Heywood, Henry George, (1949-50) 268

High Commissioner, British Antarctic Territory, 346, 350, 378, 385, 424, 429, 440, 471, 481, 485, 489

Hill, Leonard Charles, (1935-37) 248

Hill, Peter, (1994-95) 568

Hiller, Emerson, (1983-84) 474

Hillier, Edward Richard, (1966-67) 365

Hinayana, (2001-02) 609

Hindberg, Kaj, (1956-57) 308, (1959-60) 331, (1960-61) 337

Hiom, Malcolm David, (1983-84) 472

Hoare, Patrick Durrant, (1954-55) 294

Hochgrebe, Rolf, (1982-83) 464

Hodges Glacier, 385, 391

Hodges, Michael Henry, (1906) 133

Hodges, William, (1772-75) 8

Hodgson, Norman Richard, (1989-90) 519

Hodkinson, Peter John, (1958-59) 327

Hodson, Arnold Wienholt, (1927) 218, (1928) 224

Holden, Godfrey Andrew (1976-77) 410

Holdgate, Martin Wyatt, (1961-62) 341, (1963-64) 356

Hollick-Kenyon, Herbert, (1935-36) 248

Holmes, James M., (1876-77) 102, (1877-78) 104

Holtedahl, Olaf, (1927-28) 220

Holzlöhner, S., (1977-78) 417

Honke, Francis James, (1983-84) 474

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, (1844-47) 83

Hooper, Peter Ralph, (1954-55) 296, (1955-56) 302

Hope Bay, 124, 256, 266, 278, 282, 283, 290, 293, 296, 300, 301, 302, 307, 311, 316, 317, 319, 326, 327, 331, 337, 342, 349, 350, 355, 409, 413, 422, 423, 427, 437, 448, 480, 497, 535, 599, 628

Hope Bay incident, 278, 282

Hope Point, 178, 253

Hope, Herbert Willes Webley, (1920) 188

Hope, (1828-29*) 79

Hopking, Mark, (2000-01) 604

Hopper, Thomas, (1793-94) 25, (1808-09) 50

Horatio, (1915-16*) 179

Horlick Mountains, 351

Horncastle, Richard, (1952) 282

Horner, Christopher, (1791-92) 22

Hornos, Cabo de, 5, 45, 50, 104, 209, 533

Horntvedt, Harald, (1927-28) 220

Horse Head, 253

Horseshoe Island, 296, 302, 311, 316, 319, 327, 331, 337, 375, 575

Houdaille, Christophe, (1990-92) 532, (1994-95) 568

Hovgaard Island, 532

Howarth, Richard, (1999-2000) 599

Hrvatska Cigra, (1996-97) 579

Hughes Bay, 413, 422, 427, 437

Hughes, David Lewis, (1965-66) 362

Hughson, Kenneth Wilson, (1972-73) 391

Hugh-Trafford, Timothy, (1997-98) 586

Hugo Island, 119, 209, 231, 360, 376

Huiici, Mario, (1981-82) 448

Huin, Nicholas, (1993-94) 552

Humpidge, Paul, (1995-96) 570

Hunt, Rex Masterman, (1981-82) 450, (1983) 463, (1983-84) 471

Hunter, Ewan Scott, (1991-92) 535

Hunter, Josephine, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568

Hurley, James Francis [Frank], (1914-16) 175, (1917) 184

Huron, (1802-06) 49

Hurtig, Robert, (1983-84) 474

Husvik, 137, 144, 236, 258, 277, 306, 329, 426, 488, 497, 520, 525, 527, 535, 540, 543, 552

Husvik, (1920-21) 190

Hut, historic, 110, 124, 134, 147, 220, 256, 296, 351, 427

Hvalfangerselskab Ocean, 147

Iagarshev, Valeriy Filippovich, (1981-83) 453

Iaorana, (1994-95) 568

Ice Fjord, 205

Ice Maiden, (2000-01) 604

Iceberg, 4, 118, 209, 213, 216, 222, 231, 233, 343, 440, 450

Idrac, Pierre, (1923-24) 198

Ievers, John Augustine, (1952) 282

If, (1997-98) 586Ikonicoff, Samuel, (1977-78) 413

Illiria, (1987-88) 508, (1988-89) 515, (1989-90) 522, (1990-91) 530, (1991-92) 537, (1992-93) 547

Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition [Endurance], 175, 182, 184

Inaccessibility, Pole, 363

Inaccessible Islands, 237

Indian, (1799-1801) 32

Indispensible, (1818-19) 59, (1819-20) 62

Ingrid Christensen Coast, 308, 316, 628

Iniquity, (1992-93) 548

Inscription, 38, 91, 187, 473

Instituto de Pesca Nº I, (1916) 180

Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 501

International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators, 530, 537, 547, 557, 567, 572, 578, 585, 592, 598, 603

International Biological Programme, 370

International Geophysical Year, 109, 303, 308, 311, 313, 314, 316, 319, 320, 325, 326, 327

International Hydrological Programme, 385, 387

International Magnetosphere Study, 410

International Polar Year, (1882-83) 109, 110, (1932-33) 109, 237, 242

International Polar Years, (2007-09) 109, 316, 628

International whale-marking expedition, 288

International Years of the Quiet Sun, 355, 359

Intrepid, (1787-88) 13

Introduced animal, 58, 66, 70, 77, 110, 115, 124, 127, 149, 154, 158, 164, 175, 187, 195, 217, 246, 256, 305, 322, 333, 403, 552, 558, 568

Iokim Vatsiyetis, (1980-81) 437

Iowa State University, 381

Ippolitov, Valeriy Sergeyevich, (1981-83) 453

Iriart, Luis M., (1955-56) 300

Irish expedition, 579

Irish yacht cruise, 579

Irízar, Julían, (1903) 124

Irvin and Johnson (South Africa) Limited, 157

Irving, John James Cawdell, (1930-32) 233

Isabel May, (1910-11) 153

Isacke, Christopher John, (1972-73) 392, (1973-74) 397

Isatis II, (1980-81) 444, (1981-82) 455

Isatis, (1978-79) 425

Isla Camila, (1998) 588

Islas Orcadas, (1976-77) 409, (1977-78) 413, (1978-79) 422

Isles, Bay of, 61, 143, 166, 290, 385, 495

Italian expedition, 409, 509

Italian yacht cruise, 398, 492, 573

Itasca, (1994-95) 568, (1997-98) 586

Ivanov, Viktor, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999- 2000) 598

Izmaylov, Vladilen Vasil’yevich, (1971-73) 388

Jackall, (1790-91) 20

Jackson, Ian Thomas, (1959-60) 331

Jackson, Mount, 359, 575

Jacobsen, Anders, (1965-66) 362, (1966-67) 365, (1967-68) 369, (1968-69) 375

Jacobsen, Solveig Gunbjörg, (1913) 168

Jakobsen, John, (1956-57) 313

Jakobsen, Leif, (1955-56) 303, (1956-57) 314, (1957-58) 319, 320, (1958-59) 327

James Caird II, (1999-2000) 599

James Caird, (1914-16) 175, 599

James Clark Ross RRS, (1991-92) 535, (1992-93) 543, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562, (1995-96) 570, (1996-97) 575, (1997-98) 583, (1998- 99) 589, (1999-2000) 596, (2000-01) 601, (2001-02) 607, (2002-03) 611, (2003-04) 617, (2004-05) 620, (2005-06) 623, (2006-07) 626, (2007-08) 630

James Ross Island, 278, 283, 326, 331, 337, 342, 415, 488, 543, 578

James W. Turpie, (1908-46*) 146

Jamieson, Andrew William, (1972-73) 391

Jamo, (1985-86) 492, (1986-87) 503

Jancris, (1985-86) 492

Jane, (1821-22) 70, (1822-24) 75

Janichon, Gérard, (1970-72) 384, (1972-73) 393

Jantine, (1992-93) 548

Japanese expedition, 363

Japanese fisheries voyage, 312, 343, 368, 560

Japanese krill catching voyage, 418

Japanese Marine Fishery Resources Research Centre, 418

Japanese yacht cruise, 492, 531

Jarman, Geoffrey Michael, (1961-62) 342

Jason Harbour, 119

Jason Island, 374

Jason, (1893-94) 119

Jeffes, Christopher David, (1980-81) 438

Jehan, Dudley Robert, (1963-64) 355

Jenkinson, Charles, (1788) 13

Jennings, H., (1910) 151

Jensen, Frantz, (1998-99) 592

Jensen, Gullik, (1927-28) 221, (1932-33) 242

Jeremy, Cape, 317

Jerez, Gregorio, (1756) 5

Jericho, 146

Jespersen, Hans, (1932-33) 242

Jewell, John Alexander, (1978-79) 423, (1981-82) 449

Jewkes, Gordon Wesley, (1984-85) 481, (1985-86) 489

Joel, Marc, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604

Johannesen, Hans T., (1925) 207, (1926) 211 Johannessen Harbour, 296

Johannessen, Olav, (1954-55) 296

Johanssen, Johan A., (1931) 234, 235

John Biscoe, (1948-49) 266, (1949-50) 268, (1950-51) 275, (1951-52) 278, (1952-53) 283, (1953-54) 290, (1954-55) 296, (1955-56) 302

John Biscoe RRS, (1956-57) 302, 309, 311, (1957-58) 319, (1958-59) 327, (1959-60) 331, (1960-61) 337, (1961-62) 342, (1962-63) 349, (1963-64) 355, (1964-65) 359, (1965-66) 362, (1966-67) 365, (1967- 68) 369, (1968-69) 375, (1969-70) 378, (1970-71) 382, (1971-72) 385, (1972-73) 391, (1973-74) 394, 395, (1974-75) 399, 400, (1975- 76) 403, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414, (1978-79) 423, (1979-80) 428, (1980-81) 440, (1981-82) 449, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987-88) 505, (1988- 89) 511, (1989-90) 518, (1990-91) 525

John, David Dilwyn, (1926-27) 214, (1927-30) 222, (1931-33) 237

Johnson, Colin, (1960-61) 337

Johnson, Robert, (1821-22) 158, 175, (1822-23) 74

Johnston, William, (1950-51) 275, (1951-52) 278, (1952-53) 283, (1953-54) 290, (1954-55) 296, (1955-56) 302, (1956-57) 311, (1957- 58) 319, (1958-59) 327, (1959-60) 331, (1960-61) 337, (1961-62) 342, (1962-63) 349, (1963-64) 355, (1964-65) 359

Johnstons, C. Raymond, (1965-66) 363

Joint Services Expedition, 360, 361, 450, 451

Joinville Island, 290, 335, 415

Jolliffe, T. A., (1930-32) 233

Jones Mountains, 480

Jones, Alfred George Nelson, (1932) 238

Jones, Brian, (1970-71) 382, (1973-74) 395

Jones, Iorwerth Nelson Arnold, (1934) 238

Jones, John Caradoc, (1991) 533

Jones, Michael Robert Rhys, (1988-89) 511

Jones, Ranson, (1793-94) 25

Jones, Robert, (1990-91) 529

Jones, Stephen, (1991-92) 535

Jo/rgensen, Ole, (1911-12) 160

Jo/rgensen, Ottar, (1908) 143

Joseph de la Llana, (1762) 6, (1774) 9

Joshua, (2000-02) 605

Jouning, Allan, (1994-95) 568, (1997-98) 586

Jourdan, Patrick, (1985-86) 492

Joy, William, (1799-1801) 34

Jubany, 628

Julius Foch, (1977-78) 416

Jupiter, (1994-95) 568

Jutulsessen, 565, 628

Kafka, Steven, (1993-94) 559, (2000-01) 604

Kainan Bay, 316

Kalishnikov, Capt., (1993-94) 557, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Kalita, Alain, (1999-2000) 599

Kaminji-maru, (1963) 344

Kapitan Dranitsyn, (1994-95) 567, (2000-01) 603

Kapitan Gotskiy, (1983-84) 473

Kapitan Khlebnikov, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, 558, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Karavka, Ivan, (2000-01) 603

Karl, (1917) 185, (1924) 201

Karlov, Yuriy Konstantinovich, (1971-72) 388

Karlqvist, Anders, (1990-91) 525

Karlsen, Lauritz, (1928) 224, (1929) 228

Karlsen, Oscar, (1916) 178

Karrakatta, (1907-08*) 137

Kater, Cape, 366

Keane, Henry Joseph, (1896) 121

Kearn, Shadrick, (1789) 15

Kearn, William, (1788) 15

Keeley, Anthony, (1971-72) 385

Kekilistrion, (1990-91) 531, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586

Kellock, Adam, (1831-32) 81

Kelly, Juan Carlos, (1955-56) 300

Kemp, Peter, (1818-19) 59

Kemp, Stanley Wells, (1925-27) 209, (1929-31) 231

Kendall, John Arthur, (1949-50) 268

Kent HMS, (1916) 181

Kerguelen, 28, 38, 55, 58, 60, 63, 76, 83, 93, 98, 115, 177, 236, 274, 308, 316, 368, 384, 390, 419, 443, 455, 483, 490, 500, 538, 548, 568, 628

Kerr, William, (1991-92) 538

Kershaw, Michael Dennis, (1959-60) 331

Keshelava, Antarktyk Yemil’yanovich, (1948) 263

Khokhlov, Georgiy Petrovich, (1981-83) 453

Kidokoro, Tatesumu, (1990-91) 531

Kiernan, Ricardo Moreno, (1958) 325

Killingbeck, John Basil, (1960-61) 337

Kim, (1980-82) 445

King Edward Cove, 84, 92, 116, 163, 181, 278, 431

King Edward Point, 130, 134, 162, 176, 199, 203, 215, 227, 238, 255, 268, 270, 275, 278, 280, 283, 290, 296, 297, 302, 311, 316, 319, 322, 327, 331, 333, 337, 342, 348, 349, 351, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 372, 375, 377, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 399, 403, 410, 414, 423, 428, 438, 448, 449, 458, 459, 462, 468, 477, 484, 487, 494, 495, 504, 510, 516, 523, 533, 539, 550, 560, 562, 569, 574, 580, 587, 588, 595, 600, 601, 606, 610, 611, 613, 617, 619, 620, 622, 623, 625, 626, 628, 629, 630, 633

King George Island, 248, 250, 265, 266, 268, 275, 278, 283, 290, 294, 296, 302, 311, 319, 327, 331, 383, 388, 389, 390, 448, 453, 454, 466, 473, 528, 628

King George IV, (1821-22) 72

King George, (1817-18) 56, (1818-19) 59, (1821-22) 70, 71, (1823) 77

King Haakon Bay, 180, 394, 399, 403, 487, 584

King Oscar II Coast, 119

King Sejong, 628

King, John H., (1967-69) 372

Kirkwood, Henry, (1948-49) 266, (1949-50) 268

Kirwanveggen, 529

Kista Dan, (1956-57) 308, (1959-60) 331, (1960-61) 337, (1961-62) 342, (1962-63) 349, (1963-64) 355, (1964-65) 359, (1965-66) 362

Kistruck, George William Field, (1969-70) 378

Kitchen, Joseph, (1820-21) 67, (1821-22) 69

Kitty, (1793-94) 25

Kling, Alfred, (1911-12) 158, (1913) 169

Klink, Amyr Khan, (1998-99) 593, (2001-02) 609

Kloss, Wolfgang, (1990-91) 531, (1994-95) 568, (1996-97) 579, (1997- 98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (2001-02) 609

Klutschak, Heinrich Wentzel, (1877-78) 104

Knorr, (1983-84) 474

Knudsen, Frederik, (1925-26) 167

Koala, (1983-84) 476

Koan Arukanu, (2001-02) 609

Kobylyanskiy, Marat Grigor’yevich, (1983-84) 473

Koch, Karl-Heinz, (1979-80) 430, (1980-81) 441

Koch, Thilo, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Kohler, Henry, (1958) 325

Kohl-Larsen Plateau, 304

Kohl-Larsen, Ludwig, (1928-29) 225

Kohnen, Heinz, (1979-80) 430, (1980-81) 441, (1982-83) 464

Kolesnikov, Filip, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578

Komsomol’skaya, 316

Kopanski, Kazimierz, (1977-78) 419

Korean (Seoul) fisheries voyage, 560

Korean (Seoul) recreational visit, 558

Korotkevich, Yevgeniy Sergeyevich, (1971-73) 388

Kosmos II, (1932-33) 242

Kosmos, (1932-33) 242

Kostusev, Sergei, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (2000-01) 603

Kotic II, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999- 2000) 599, (2000-01) 604

Kotick, (1978-79) 425, (1985-86) 492, (1986-87) 503, (1987-88) 509, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1994-95) 568, (1995- 96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Kotze, Anke, (1998-99) 591

Krautschneider, Rudolf, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548

Krill catching, 368, 383, 388, 390, 406, 416, 417, 418, 419, 436, 437, 442, 490, 500, 514

Kristoffersen, Hans, (1929+) 229

Krogh, Peder, (1990-91) 531

Krokisius, Ferdinand, (1883) 110

Kronometer, (1986-87) 500

Kronprinsesse Märtha Kyst, 66, 313, 320, 344, 465, 472, 529, 565

Kroopmans, Dick, (1992-93) 548

Krüger, Raimund, (1991-92) 537, (1997-98) 585

Kumagori, Takeharu, (1956-57) 312, (1961-62) 343

Kupri, Eduard Iosifovich, (1970-71) 383

Kupriyanov Islands, 533

Kuttel, Boetie, (1998+) 588

La Plata, Universidad y Museo, 235

La Roche Godon, 316

La Roche, Antoine de, (1674-75) 3, 5

Laborde, Guillermo Jorge, (1978-79) 422

Laboro, Jorge Luis, (1977-78) 413

Lafonia, (1934) 200

Lagoon Island, 518

Lagos, Luis C., (1982) 459

Laird, Hamish, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599

Lamas, Alfredo P., (1905) 128

Lambert Glacier, 354

Lamont, Donald Alexander, (2000) 600, (2001) 606

Lamotte, H. de G., (1927-30) 222

Lampe, Karl-Ulrich, (1988-89) 515, (1989-90) 522, (1990-91) 530, (1991-92) 537, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995- 96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Lancing, (1925-26) 208, (1926-27) 212, 216

Landreth, Gregory, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579

Laplacette, Alberto Patrón, (1957-58) 317

Larsemann Hills, 628

Larsen Ice Shelf, 474

Larsen Nunatak, 326

Larsen, Carl Anton, (1893-94) 119, (1901-03) 124, (1904) 125, 126, (1904-05) 130, (1906) 132, (1908) 143, (1911) 154, (1912) 165, (1913) 167, (1914) 174

Larsen, Ivar Storm, (1925) 204

Larsen, Karl A., (1923) 197

Larsen, Lauritz Edward, (1904) 126, (1909) 147, (1911) 154

Larsen, Otto, (1934+) 245

Larso/ya, 220

Laurie Island, 148, 152, 155, 165, 169, 174, 183, 185, 186, 190, 197, 201, 207, 211, 217, 223, 234, 237, 248, 254, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 382, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448, 463, 628

Lavarias, Carlos, (1976-77) 409 L’Aventure, (1999-2000) 599

Law, Brian Derek, (1994) 561

Law, Phillip Garth, (1956-57) 308

Lawford, Lionel Robert Patrick, (1954-55) 294

Lawrence, Stuart James, (1974-75) 399, (1975-76) 403, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414, (1978-79) 423, (1979-80) 428, (1980-81) 438, (1981- 82) 449, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987-88) 505, (1988-89) 511, (1989-90) 518, (1990-91) 525, (1991-92) 535, (1992-93) 543, (1993-94) 552, (1994- 95) 562, (1995-96) 570, (1996-97) 575, (1997-98) 583, (1998-99) 589, (1999-2000) 596

Laws, Richard Maitland, (1948-49) 266, (1950-51) 275

Lax, Kenneth Charles, (1976-77) 410

Lazarev More, (1985-86) 490

Lazarev, Mikhail Petrovich, (1819-21) 66

Le Boulard, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593

Le Goff, Hervé, (1996-97) 579, (199-98) 586

Le Maire, Jacob, (1615-16) 2

Le Sauteur, A., (1908) 142

Le Sourire, (2001-02) 609

Leal, Jorge Edgard, (1956-57) 307

Leard, John, (1787-88) 13

Least, Capt., (1922) 194

Leblanc, Charles, (1905-06) 129, (1910-11) 153

Leckie, R. H., (1962-63) 349

Leclerq, Patrick, (1986-87) 503

Ledingham, Roderic Bentley, (1967-68) 369

Legoupil, 316, 628

Leisurely Leo, (1986-87) 503

Leith, 146, 171, 179, 236, 245, 249, 253, 258, 286, 292, 298, 339, 353, 358, 374, 426, 449, 450, 457, 458, 459, 527, 540, 577

Leith, William MacDonald, (1982-83) 465, (1983-84) 472, (1990-91) 529, (1998-99) 591

Lema, Eduardo Trejo, (1955-56) 300

Lemon, Edward Clark Garrett, (1983-84) 470

Lenie, Pieter J., (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Leningradskaya, 383, 388, 453, 473

Lenton, Ralph Anthony, (1950-51) 275, (1951-52) 278, (1953-54) 290

Leonard, James, (1994-95) 568

Léonie Island, 570

Leonova, Aleksandra Akimovna, (1948) 263

León, (1756) 5

Les Eclaireurs, (1953-54) 289

Lescure, Jean, (1978-79) 425, (1980-81) 444, (1981-82) 455

Leskov Island, 337

Leslie, David, (1819-20) 64

Lesser Antarctica, 505, 511

Lestrade, Eduardo Gastón, (1976-77) 409

Letzen, Peter, (1993-94) 557

Lewis, Barry, (1985-86) 492

Lewis, David, (1981-82) 455

Lewis, Ernest Gordon, (1971-72) 385, (1973-74) 397

Lewis, Mark Peter David, (1978-79) 423, (1980-81) 438, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470

Liberador, 293

Liddle, Gordon Malcolm, (1990-91) 525

Liège Island, 400

Light, Jeremy James, (1970-71) 382

Lighthouse, 130, 133

L’Ile Nue, (2001-02) 609

Lillie Glacier, 430

Lillie-Marleen, 430, 464

Lindblad Explorer, (1970) 380, (1972) 389, (1974-75) 401, (1975-76) 407, (1976-77) 412, (1979-80) 432, (1980-81) 443, (1981-82) 454, (1982-83) 466, (1983-84) 475

Lindblad Travel, 380

Lindblad, Lars-Eric, (1970) 380

Lindsay Island, 50

Lindsay, Alexander, (1909) 148

Lindsay, James, (1808-09) 50

Lines, Frank Edward, (1971-72) 385

Lion, Richard, (1903) 122, (1905) 127

Liotard, Mount, 341

Littkemann, Edwin, (1975-76) 406, (1977-78) 416, (1980-81) 441

Little America V, 316

Little Jena, 363

Little Rockford, 351

Little, Bruce S., (1983-84) 474

Littlejohn, David, (1818-19) 59

Lively, (1793-94) 25, (1799-1800) 30, (1830-32*) 81

Livingston Island, 318, 319, 409, 488, 525

Livonia, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572

Lizzie P. Simmons, (1875-76) 100, (1876-77) 103

Llana, Joseph de la, (1762) 6, (1774) 9

Llewellin, Lewis, (1793-94) 25, (1798-99) 28, (1799-1800) 30

Llosa, Guillermo, (1911) 155

Loca Lola, (1993-94) 559

Lochner, Ernst Hendrik, (1998-99) 591

Loken, Kristen, (1912-14) 167

London, (1790-92) 21

López de Bertodano, Aurelio C., (1954-55) 293

López, Juan, (1986-87) 501

Lord Hawkesbury, (1786-88) 12, (1793-94) 25, (1794-95) 26

Lord, James Trevor, (1978-79) 424, (1979-80) 429

Lorensz, Wilhelm, (1911-12) 158

Loskutov, Kim Nikolayevich, (1981-82) 453

Loubet Coast, 302, 311Louis Philippe Land, 124

Louise, (1904) 126, (1987*) 126

Lovegrove, Ian William, (1982-83) 462, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987-88) 505, (1988-89) 511, (1989-90) 518

Lovely Nancy, (1818-20*) 61

Low Island, 97

Lowenstein, Johannes, (1994-95) 564

Loza, Leonidas Aldo, (1980-81) 437

Lucas, (1787-88) 14, (1788-89) 16, (1789-90) 17

Lucero, Domingo W., (1955-56) 300

Luis Risopatrón, 316

Luis, Domingo G., (1952) 281

Luitpold Coast, 158, 422, 427, 437, 448

Lunde, Johan Schro/der, (1958-61) 167

Lundgren, Kim, (1994-95) 568

Lush, George Ronald, (1958-59) 327

Lützow-Holmbukta, 312

Lyell Glacier, 458

Lyn, (1906*) 132

Lyn, (2003*) 615

Lynch, Brendan, (1962-63) 349

Lyubov Orlova, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

McArthur, Alistair Hugh, (1966-67) 365, (1967-68) 369

McCalman, Donald, (1957-58) 319, (1958-59) 327

McDermott, P., (1987-88) 505

McDonald Islands, 483

Macey, Stephen, (1799-1800) 30

McFie, George, (1990-91) 529

MacGregor, Colin Laird, (1982-83) 463, (1983-84) 471, (1984-85) 481

McIntyre, Donald, (1992-93) 548

Mackay, Henry, (1793-94) 25, (1794-95) 26, (1795-96) 27

Mackie, Henry, (1793-94) 25, (1794-95) 26, (1795-96) 27

McKinnon, R. S., (1960-61) 334

McKinstry, Richard, (1793-94) 25

Mackintosh, Neil Alison, (1925) 202, (1926-27) 214, (1930-32) 233, (1933-35) 244

McLaren, Christopher Patrick Charles, (1985-86) 489

McLeod, George Kennedy, (1957-58) 319

McLeod, Michael, (1821-22) 70

Maclow, Mr, (1818-20) 61

McManus, Alan James, (1979-80) 428

McManus, Steven James, (1990-91) 525

McNish, Kenneth Thomas, (1961-62) 344

Macpherson, Neil James, (1970-71) 382

Macquarie Island, 66, 78, 83, 237, 274, 308, 316, 354, 384, 432, 443, 454, 466, 476, 531, 547, 557, 567, 628

Macquarie Ridge, 388

McSweeney, R. H., (1962-63) 351

Mac. Robertson Land, 308, 316, 354, 472, 628

Magga Dan, (1956-57) 305, 314

Magnetism, terrestrial, 4, 177

Mahine Tiare, (1995-96) 573

Maiden, Colin Stewart, (1975-76) 403

Maipú, 300

Maitri, 628

Maiviken, 124

Maksimov, Valeriy, (1991-92) 537, (1992-93) 547, (1996-97) 578

Maksutov, Dmitriy Dmitriyevich, (1981-83) 453

Malaspina, Alejandro, (1789-94) 18

Mallon, Brian, (1991-92) 535, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562

Malquit, Vincent, (1998-99) 593

Manning, Richard, (2000-01) 604

Manning, Russell, (1992-93) 543

Mansfield, Arthur Walter, (1951-52) 278

Manta, (1977-78) 419

Manuel de Oyarvido, (1790) 19

Marambio, 628

Maranga, César, (1910) 152

Marble Point, 474

Marchesi, Victor Aloysius John Baptist, (1943-44) 256

Marco Polo, (1993-94) 557, (1995-96) 572, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Marguerite Bay, 266, 296, 311, 331, 335, 362, 387, 392, 397, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 440, 448

Marie Byrd Land, 363, 418, 453, 473, 474, 525

Marie, (1883) 110

Marine Salvage Services, 527

Marion Dufresne, (1981-82) 455

Marion Island, 316, 331, 344, 465, 472, 483, 529, 565, 591, 628, 632

Mariya Yermalova, (2000-01) 603

Mari-Stella, (1992-93) 548

Markland, (1905-06) 129

Maro/, Harald, (1955-56) 305

Marotte, Alberto de, (1956-57) 307

Marquis, Peter Timothy, (1987-88) 505, (1989-90) 518, (1990-91) 525

Marr, James William Slessor, (1927-30) 222, (1943-44) 256

Marriage, 238, 413, 422

Mars, (1799-1801) 34

Marshall, John Bryce, (1997-98) 583, (1998-99) 589, (1999-2000) 596

Marshall, Steven, (1999-2000) 596

Marsh, George Walter, (1951-52) 278, (1952-53) 283

Marthinsen, Martin, (1953) 288

Martin Islands, 296

Martin, Peter J., (1963-64) 354

Martin, Stephen John, (1980-81) 438, (1981-82) 449

Martínez, Enrique Peralta, (1981-82) 448, 460

Martínez, Francisco, (1981-82) 448 Martin-de-Viviès, 628

Marvel, Robert, (1962-63) 351

Mary Ann, (1818-19) 59, (1819-20) 62

Mary E. Simmons, (1880-82) 107

Mary Jane, (1838-39) 82

Mary, (1793-94) 25

Marzi, Jorge A. de, (1957-58) 317

Massocco, Eduardo, (1955-56) 300

Mata Hiva, (1986-87) 503

Matchstick, Operation, 460

Mather, Keith Benson, (1956-57) 308

Mathiesen, Svein, (1989-90) 520

Mathilde, (1907-08) 137

Matthew, John W., (1957-59) 322

Matthews, David, (1979-80) 431

Matusevich, Grigoriy Solomonovich, (1981-82) 453, (1983-84) 473

Matzen, Thies, (1998-99) 593

Maumee USNS, (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Mawson, 308, 316, 354, 472, 628

Mayer, Carlos, (1958-59) 326

Mayle, S., (1988-89) 511

Mazeppa, (1981-82) 455, (1983-84) 476

McMurdo, 316, 351, 363, 442, 474, 628

Meander, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599

Medical evacuation, 326, 344, 369, 382, 391, 413, 465, 472, 529

Medina, (1838-39) 82

Meehan, William John, (1951-52) 278

Meffre, Georges, (1986-87) 503, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568

Melchior, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326

Melchior Islands, 256, 307, 424

Melsom, Henrik Govenius, (1925-26) 208

Melville, (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Méndez, Horacio, (1957-58) 317

Méndez, Nicolás Jorge, (1955-56) 300, (1956-57) 307

Menucos, Cordón los, 300

Mercer, George Metcalf, (1926-27) 214

Meritsh Louise, (1998-99) 593

Merivoukka, (1991-92) 538

Mersing, Walter, (1978-79) 422

Merz, Alfred, (1925+) 210

Messiga, Luis, (1954-55) 293

Métapassion, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568

Meteor, (1925-27) 210

Meteor, (1980-81) 441

Metolius, (1994-95) 568

Metschel, John J., (1962-63) 351

Michelburgh, Edwin, (1979-80) 431

Migliaccio, Roberto, (1994-95) 568

Mignone, Ernesto D., (1958-59) 326

Mikhail Somov, (1981-82) 453, (1983-84) 473

Mikhaylov, Mikhail Yermolayevich, (1983-84) 473

Mikkelsen Harbour, 293

Millerand Island, 307

Miller, Nigel, (1990-91) 527

Miller, Ronald, (1956-57) 311

Mills, Jan, (1991) 533

Milorgfjella, 359

Mindrinos, Capt., (1987-88) 508

Minerals, 161, 422, 448

Miner, Stanford Stoddard, (1876-77) 101, (1882-83) 111

Minerva, (1793-94) 25

Minerva, (1799-1802) 36

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores etc, 264

Mirfak USNS, (1962-63) 351

Mirnyy, 316, 383, 388, 453, 473, 628

Mirnyy, (1819-21) 66

Mischief, (1966-67) 367

Mitchell, David, (1986-87) 497, (1991-92) 535, (1992-93) 543

Mochalov, Yuriy P., (1970-71) 383

Mole, Leonard Usher, (1963-64) 355, (1964-65) 359

Möller, Johannes Erasmus, (1990-91) 529

Molodezhnaya, 383, 388, 453, 473

Moltke Harbour, 132, 210

Moltke Nunataks, 307

Moltke, (1882) 110

Momo, (1979-80) 433

Moneta, José Manuel, (1927) 217

Montagu Island, 301, 321, 472, 616

Montana, (1995-96) 572

Montaro, Joseph H., (1889-91+) 116

Montebello, (1916*) 178

Montes, Oscar, (1957-58) 317

Montevideo, 200

Monzo, Jean, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593

Moore, Barrington Lungley, (1947-48) 262

Moore, Michael J., (1997) 582

Moore, P., (1988-89) 511

Moreno, Héctor E., (1979-80) 427

Moresko I, (2003*) 615

Morgan, Lou, (1998-99) 593

Morgan, Tudor John Oxford, (1995-96) 570

Morgan-Grenville, Roger T., (1985) 487

Morild, (2000-01) 604

Moriori, 81

Moritz D, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1997-98) 586, (1998-2001) 594

Morosini, Marco, (1987-88) 509Morozumi, Henry M., (1962-63) 351

Morrell, Benjamin, (1822-24) 76

Morse, (1800) 39

Morton, Anthony, (1982) 459, 460

Morton, Ashley Clarke, (1985-86) 488, (1988-89) 511

Morton, Barry John Stewart, (1995-96) 570

Mosby, Haakon, (1927-28) 220

Mosley, Miles Vernon, (1977-78) 414, (1979-80+) 428

Mosthaff, Eugen, (1882-83) 110

Motorised transport, 175

Mountaineering, 295, 302, 336, 341, 359, 361, 433, 467, 509, 533, 568, 573, 575, 586, 593, 599, 604, 609, 614

M’our Bruin, (2000-01) 604

Mowatt, Thomas, (1818-19) 59

Mühlig-Hofmannfjella, 320

Muhre, Harald, (1952-53) 284

Müller-Heiden, Ekkehard, (1980-81) 441

Muriel, Rafael Walter, (1956-57) 307

Murphy, Robert Cushman, (1912-13) 166, (1970) 380

Murphy, Thomas Leyden, (1955-56) 302

Museo de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires, 201

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, 197, 212, 230

Myers, Phillip Geoffrey Hubert, (1966-67) 365

Mys Juno, (1985-86) 490, (1986-87) 500

Mys Ostrovsky, (1985-86) 490

Nadezhda Krupskaya, (1971-72) 388

Næss, O. J. (1917) 185

Nagel, John, (1961-62) 344

Naïla, (1999-2000) 599

Najat, (1997-98) 586

Nakamura, Satoru, (1977-78) 418

Nancy, (1792-95) 24

Nanook, (2000-01) 604

Nasine, Eduardo E., (1978-79) 422

Nasu, Keniji, (1976-77) 418

National Institute of Oceanography (Britain) 274

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 499, 507, 514, 566

National Science Foundation, 352, 442, 474, 505

Natke, Thilo, (2000-01) 603

Natural Environment Research Council, 386

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 126, 496

Navarin, (1971-72) 388

Neal, John, (1995-96) 573

Neale, Joseph B., (1874-75) 94, (1875-76) 98

Neé, Luis, (1789-90) 18

Nel, Jakobus Gustav, (1994-95) 565

Nella Dan, (1963-64) 354

Nell, Peter, (2000-01) 604

Nelson, Andrew Laidlaw, (1933-35) 244

Nereide HMS, (1953-54) 289

Netherlands expedition, 385, 498

Netherlands whaling voyage, 261

Netherlands yacht cruise, 538, 548, 559, 586, 593, 599, 604, 609

Neumayer, 554, 564, 584, 589, 596, 628

New Island, 142, 145

New Plymouth, 67, 69

New South Greenland, 76, 158, 175, 193

New Zealand expedition, 479

New Zealand yacht cruise, 476, 483, 531, 538, 548, 559, 573, 579, 593, 599, 604, 609

Newham, Brian William, (1987-88) 505, (1991-92) 535

Newton, Jorge Fausto, (1977-78) 413

Nicholl, Timothy Michael, (1948-49) 266

Nicolaou, George, (1974-75) 401, (1975-76) 407

Nicol, Colin Douglas, (1983-84) 470

Niella, Osvaldo M., (1981-82) 448, (1982) 457

Nielsen, Oscar, (1932-33) 242

Nieuwenhuijs, Gijsbert Karel, (1981-82) 449

Nigeria HMS, (1947-48) 262

Nikolayev, Pavel Maksimovich, (1983-85) 473

Nilsson, Hasse, (1974-75) 401, (1975-76) 407, (1976-77) 412, (1980- 81) 443, (1981-82) 454, (1982-83) 466, (1983-84) 475, (1984-85) 482

Nimrod Island, 81, 177

Nivea, Mount, 302

Nixon, John Brian, (1960-61) 337

Noble, John Rushton, (1954-55) 296

Nodal, Bartolomé Garcia de, (1618-19) 2

Nodal, Gonçalo Garcia de, (1618-19) 2

Nogal de Saldán, 317

Non-existent island, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 18, 19, 31, 65, 74, 75, 76, 81, 82, 86, 118, 158, 177, 193, 231

Nordbrise, (1989-90) 522

Nordenhaag, Erik, (1905) 126, (1907) 134

Nordenskjöld Coast, 342

Nordenskjöld, Nils Otto Gustaf, (1901-03) 124, 427

Nordic Antarctic Research Programme, 591

Norfolk, (1815-17) 54, (1817-18) 57, (1818-20) 61, (1820-21) 68

Norhval, (1945-46) 258

Norman, Shaun Michael, (1968-69) 375

Norro/na I, (1925-26) 208

Norro/na, (1906) 131

Norsel, (1954-55) 296

Norsk Polarinstitutt, 313, 320, 355, 450, 520, 545, 577

Norske Sjo/mannsmisjon, 167

Norske Stasjon, 313, 316, 320, 344

Norsk-Brittisk-Svenska Antarktisexpedision (1949-52) 362

North Coast of South Georgia Expedition, 431 Northanger, (1986-87) 503, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579

Northeast Glacier, 293

Northern Light, (1982-83) 467, (1983-84) 476, (1990-92) 532

Northern Ranger, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557

Northover, Michael James, (1964-65) 359

Northwind USCGC, (1958-59) 327

Norvegia, (1927-28) 220

Norway, 220

Norway Station, 313, 316, 320, 344

Norwegian Antarctic Expedition (1956-60) 313, 320

Norwegian Defence Forces, 253

Norwegian dependency, 220

Norwegian expedition, 143, 225, 565, 591

Norwegian fisheries expedition, 132, 277, 332

Norwegian relief expedition, 182

Norwegian sealing voyage, 119, 205, 276

Norwegian South Georgian expedition, 520, 545, 577

Norwegian whaling enterprise, 125, 126, 137, 138, 141, 147, 190

Norwegian whaling expedition, 119, 213

Norwegian whaling voyage, 131, 159, 160, 178, 204, 208, 212, 219, 221, 229, 241, 245, 258, 284, 373

Norwegian yacht cruise, 531, 568, 593, 604

Norwegian (Christensen) Antarctic expedition, 213, 220

Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1949-52) 362

Nott-Bowers, G. C., (1967-69) 372

Nouanni, (1987-88) 509

Novak, James V. [Skip], (1987-88) 509, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996- 97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593

Novolazarevskaya, 383, 388, 453, 473, 628

Nuclear power, 442, 473

Nuestra Señora de Atocha, (1618-19) 2

Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso, (1618-19) 2

Nuevo Alocero, (1986-87) 501

Nugent, Frank, (1996-97) 579

Nunn, Robert O., (1963-64) 354

Nutt, John William, (1978-79) 423

Nydegger, Jean, (1993-94) 559

Nyegaad, H., (1924) 200

Oates Land, 383, 388, 453, 464, 473

Oazis, 316

Ob’, (1970-71) 383, (1971-72) 388

Ocean, Hvalfangerselskab, 147

Ocean Explorer, (1999-2000) 598

Ocean Harbour, 90, 147, 154, 178

Ocean Princess, (1990-91) 530, (1991-92) 537, (1992-93) 547

Ocean, (1909-10) 147

Oceanic Research Foundation, 455

Ocollo, (1838-39*) 82

O’Connell, Mark John, (1985-86) 488

Odd Fellow, (1869) 89

Odd I, (1926-27) 213

Offshore Biological Programme, 414, 428, 449, 470, 480, 488, 497

Oficina Meteorológica Argentina, 130, 134

Ogara, Alicio E., (1954-55) 293

Ohkubo, Kazuhito, (1977-78) 418

Ohtsu-maru, (1977-78) 418

Olbrich, Torsten, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Ole Wegger, (1932-33) 242

O’Leary, Raymond Arthur, (1963-64) 354

Ollivant, Martin Spencer, (1963-64) 356, (1964-65) 360

Olmeda RFA, (1982) 459, 460

Olsen, Geir A., (1989-90) 520

Olsen, Hans, (1942) 254

Olsen, Steinar, (1951-52) 277

Olstad, Ola, (1927-28) 220

Oncorhyncus mykiss, 333

Ongul, 316, 628

Onofrio, Ricardo Abel D’, (1977-78) 413

Onrust II, (1996-97) 579

Oosterschelde, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599

Operation Matchstick, 460

Operation Paraquat, 459

Operation Tabarin, 256

Orcadas, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448, 628

Orchard, David John, (1976-77) 410

Orford Cliff, 575

Orita, (1927) 216

Orléans Strait, 124

Orr, Neil Wallace Morison, (1959-60) 331

Orthel, Rolf, (1971-72) 385

Ortiz de Rosas, Domingo, (1756+) 5

Orwell, (1926-27) 217, (1927-28) 223

Osborne, Alan Campbell, (1991-92) 535, (1992-93) 543

Ossinski, Zbigniew, (1987-88) 507, (1988-89) 513

O’Sullivan, Andrew John, (1989-90) 518

Osuna, Julio Sbarbi, (1955-56) 300

Otter, (1808-09) 50

Outeniqua SAS, (1998-99) 591

Ovchinnikov, Nikolay Nikolayevich, (1971-73) 388

Overbury, G. P., (1982) 459, 460

Oviri, (1992-93) 548

Ovsyannikov, Vladimir L’vovich, (1970-72) 383

Owen HMS, (1960-61) 334

Oyarvido, Manuel de, (1790) 19

Ozawa, Keijirô, (1961-62) 343, (1966-67) 368

Pacific Ruby, (1992-93) 547

Pacific, (1829-31) 80

Pacome III, (1994-95) 568

Paddack, Jonathan, (1801-02) 37, (1801-03) 47

Padilla, Alberto L., (1976-77) 409

Paget, Mount, 295, 336, 361, 433, 533, 568, 614

Paisley, John, (1956-57) 311, (1957-58) 319

Palawan, (1985-86) 492

Palma, Emilio Marcos, (1978) 413

Palmer, 363, 409, 442, 474, 628

Palmer Archipelago, 208, 209, 213, 220, 224, 246, 262, 265, 278

Palmer, Cyril Hugh, (1954-55) 296

Palmer, Nathaniel Brown, (1819-20) 65, (1820-21) 66, (1821-22) 70

Palmer’s Land, 81

Pampa, (1924) 201

Panamanian fishing voyage, 560

Panamanian yacht cruise, 455, 456

Papa, Héctor Raúl, (1977-78) 413

Paradelo, Isidoro Antonio, (1976-77) 409

Paradise Harbour, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448

Paramour, (1699-1700) 4

Paraquat, Operation, 459

Parati, (1998-99) 593, (2001-02) 609

Parisis, A., (1988-89) 515

Parker, James Roland Walter, (1977-78) 415, (1978-79) 424, (1979-80) 429, (1980-81) 440

Parmelia, (1997-98) 586

Parnell, David Stirling, (1967-68) 369

Parsons, Joseph, (1838-39) 82

Pasgualini, A., (1983-84) 476

Paso de los Andes, 307

Passage, (1990-91) 531

Passfield, Ken, (1999-2000) 599

Pastoral industry, 122, 127, 151

Patriot Hills, 558

Patrol Orbat, 584

Patuxent Range, 470

Pauffin de Saint-Morel, Olivier, (1990-91) 531, (1992-93) 548, (1993- 94) 559, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586

Paulet Island, 124

Paulsen, Olaf, (1910) 152

Pawley, Michael Raymond, (1971-72) 385, (1973-74) 395, (1974-75) 399, (1975-76) 403, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414, (1978-79) 423, (1979-80) 428

Payne, Geoffrey, (1991-92) 538

Pearigen, Jare Max, (1980-81) 442

Pearl, (1779) 11

Pearson, Martin Robert, (1971-72) 385

Peary, Mount, 403

Pedersen, Morten, (1893-94) 119

Peggotty, (1992-93) 548

Peignon, Jacques, (1978-79) 425

Pelagic, (1987-88) 509, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997- 98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Pelagos, (1945-46) 258

Pelican, (1909) 147

Pen Duick III, (1997-98) 586

Pendleton, Isaac, (1802) 48

Penfold, David Neil, (1951-52) 278

Penguin, (1799-1802) 36

Penguin, (1909) 147

Penola, (1934-37) 246

Pentreath, David, (1982) 459

Pequod, (1987-88) 509

Perandones, Miguel Felipe, (1978-79) 422

Pereyra, Carlos Alberto, (1980-81) 437

Pereyra, Miguel A., (1979-80) 427

Perla Dan, (1966-67) 365, (1967-68) 369, (1968-69) 375, (1969-70) 378

Perla, (1779) 11

Pernice, Jorge H. E., (1958-59) 326

Péron, Pierre François, (1799-180, 38

Perry, Robin M., (1958-59) 327

Peru, (1870-71) 91

Pescapuerta IV, (1986-87) 501

Pes’yakov, Feliks Aleksandrovich, (1981-82) 453

Peter I o/y, 66, 213, 231, 251, 432, 443, 454, 466, 473, 475, 491, 502, 528, 557, 558, 578

Petermann Island, 293, 445

Petersen, Hans Christian, (1956-57) 305, 314, (1963-64) 354

Petersen, Joachim, (1907) 135

Petersen, Leif A., (1961-62) 342, (1962-63) 349, (1963-64) 355, (1964- 65) 359

Petersson Island, 293

Petrel, 409

Petrel, (1961) 338, (1966) 364

Petrov, Ivan Grigor’yevich, (1970-72) 383

Petter, Marcel, (1994-95) 568

Petts, Norman Stanley Wilson, (1951-52) 278

Phelps, Edmund Malcolm Stuart, (1972-73) 391, (1973-74) 395, (1974- 75) 399, (1975-76) 403, (1976-77) 410, (1977-78) 414, (1978-79) 423, (1979-80) 428, (1980-81) 438, (1981-82) 449, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987- 88) 505, (1988-89) 511, (1989-90) 518, (1990-91) 525 Phelps, William Dane, (1817-20) 58

Phiamingi, (1801-02) 45

Philip, Prince, (1956-57) 309, 310, 311

Phillipe, Thomas, (1981-82) 455

Phillips, David Alan, (1993-94) 553, (1994-95) 563

Philos, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Phoenix, (1982*) 458

Photography, 110

Photography, colour, 175

Piccinini, Miguel A., (1979-80) 427

Picciotto, E., (1965-66) 363

Pickering, (1817-20) 58

Piloto Pardo, (1968-69) 375, (1971-72) 389, (1978-79) 432

Pinkham, Hezekiah, (1801-02) 37

Pioner Estonii, (1981-82) 453, (1983-84) 473

Pionerskaya, 316, 453

Pirner, Johannes Heinrich, (1882) 110

Pitman, Thomas, (1792-93) 23, (1793-94) 25

Pittas, I., (1989-90) 522

Pitt, Keith Allan John, (1943-44) 256

Place-names, 299, 434

Plateau, 363

Plee, Claude, (1998-99) 593

Plyler, C. Thomas, (1980-81) 442

Plymouth HMS, (1982) 459

Poch, Ramón A., (1925) 207, (1926) 211

Poirier, Rémy, (2001-02) 609

Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Experiment, 543

Polar Circle, (1990-91) 525, 530

Polar Circle HMS, (1991-92) 536, (1992-93) 544

Polar Mist, (1996-97) 579

Polar Queen, (1982-83) 464

Polar Sea USCGC, (1983-84) 474

Polar Star USCGC, (1980-81) 442

Polarbjo/rn, (1956-57) 313

Polarbjo/rn, (1982-83) 464

Polarka, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548

Polarsirkel, (1956-57) 313, (1979-80) 430, (1980-81) 441

Polarstern, (1982-83) 464, (1993-94) 554, (1994-95) 564

Pole of Inaccessibility, 363

Polish Academy of Sciences, 499

Polish expedition, 388

Polish fisheries voyage, 419, 560

Polish oceanographic voyage, 499, 513

Polley, H., (1977-78) 416

Polly, (1792-94) 24

Polska Morska Naukowa, 499

Poncet, Dion Michael, (1979) 420, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Poncet, Fabian, (1990-91) 531

Poncet, Jérôme, (1970-72) 384, (1972-73) 393, (1977-79) 420, (1982- 83) 467, (1983-84) 476, (1985-88) 493, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Ponomarev, Anatoliy Mikhaylovich, (1981-82) 453

Popaye, (1993-94) 559

Port Egmont, 18

Port Foster, 163, 266

Port Hennequin, 287

Port Lockroy, 256, 266, 268, 275, 278, 282, 283, 290, 296, 302, 311, 316, 319, 327, 331, 337, 342, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 630

Portal Point, 311, 316, 570

Porter, William, (1801-02) 44

Portuguese expedition, 2

Portuguese voyage, 1

Port-aux-Français, 316, 628

Port-Jeanne d’Arc, 236

Porvenir, (1999-2000) 599

Poskoniy, Capt., (2000-01) 603

Possession Bay, 8

Post Office, 149, 193

Postage stamps, 257, 515

Post, Keith, (1997-98) 586

Potter Cove, 293, 376, 448

Pottinger, Charles, (1821-22) 73

Potts, Trevor, (1994) 558, 560

Poulsen, Otto Hilmar, (1916) 179

Poupon, Philippe, (1994-95) 568, (1995-96) 573, (1997-98) 586, (1999- 2000) 599

Powell Island, 159, 319

Powell, George, (1818-19) 60, (1821-22) 70

Powell, Michael David, (1991-92) 535

Powell, (1911-12) 159

Prasad, Simon, (1999-2000) 596

Precious, Alan, (1956-57) 311

President Pretorius SAS, (1982) 465

President, (1801-02) 37

Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, 628

Presidente Gabriel González Videla, 316

Presidente Pedro Aguirre Cerda, 316

Preston, Frank, (1960-61) 337

Pretext HMS, (1956) 302

Price, Anne, (1981-82) 452

Price, Richard Andrew, (1984-85) 480, (1986-87) 497

Prickett, Herbert Edward, (1925) 203

Priestley, Raymond, (1956-57) 311Primavera, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448

Primero de Mayo, (1925) 207

Prince Charles Mountains, 308, 473

Prince Edward Island, 465, 472

Prince Edward Islands, 38, 58, 244, 483, 538

Prince Edward, (1798-99*) 28

Prince Gustav Channel, 124, 578

Prince Olav Harbour, 82, 157, 180, 191, 204, 229, 236, 426, 431, 540

Princesa, (1790) 19

Princess Amelia, (1801-02) 44

Princess Elizabeth Land, 308, 354

Prinsesse Ragnhild Kyst, 66

Prinzregent Luitpold Land, 158

Private expedition, 260, 338, 431, 521, 528, 531, 546, 558, 560, 614

Private Frank J. Petrarca USNS, (1965-66) 363

Private John R. Towle USNS, (1965-66) 363

Private Joseph F. Merrell USNS, (1962-63) 351

Pro Surveyor, (1992) 542

Proclamation Island, 472

Profesor Bogucki, (1977-78) 419

Profesor Siedlecki, (1986-87) 499, (1987-88) 507, (1988-89) 513

Professor Gruvel, (1922) 194

Professor Khromov, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578

Professor Molchanov, (1991-92) 537, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998- 99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Professor Multanovskiy, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Professor Vize, (1970-71) 383, (1971-72) 388, (1983-84) 473

Professor Zubov, (1970-71) 383, (1981-82) 453

Progress II, 628

Prospect Point, 311, 316, 319, 327, 410

Protea SAS, (1978) 421, (1984) 472, (1994) 561

Protector HMS, (1955-56) 301, (1955-67) 376, (1956-57) 309, 310, 311, (1957-58) 318, (1959-60) 330, (1960-61) 334, 335, 336, (1961- 62) 341, (1962-63) 350, (1963-64) 356, (1964-64) 359, (1964-65) 360, 361, (1965-66) 362, (1966-67) 366, (1967-68) 369, 371

Prudence, (1801-02) 37

Przywitowski, Richard F., (1965-66) 363

Pujato, Hernán, (1954-55) 293, (1955-56) 300

Puma HMS, (1966) 365

Punta Loyola, (1954-55) 293

Purdy, T. K., (1870-71) 91

Quaker, (1789) 15

Quakster, (1982) 456

Queen Adelaide Island, 81

Queen Mary Land, 316, 383, 388, 453, 473, 628

Queen Maud Bay, 276

Queen of Bermuda HMS, (1941) 253

Quest, (1921-22) 193

Quilmes, (1953) 287

Quinteros, Oscar Emilio, (1981-82) 448

Quitmann, Miles, (1996-97) 579

Rabot Island, 307

Radio communication, 175, 181, 203, 217, 546, 558

Rael, (1996-97) 579

Raggio, Giovanni, (1982) 456

Rakusa-Suszczewski, Stanisl/aw, (1971-72) 388, (1986-87) 499, (1988-89) 513

Ralling, Christopher, (1981-82) 447

Ralph, Richard Peter, (1996) 574, (1997) 580, (1999) 595

Ramanouskas, Jonas, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Ranger, (1799-1801) 34

Rankin, Arthur Niall, (1946-47) 260

Rapa-Nui, (1985-86) 492, (1990-91) 531

Rapid, (1937*) 248

Rasmussen Island, 470

Rasmussen, C. J., (1916) 183, (1917) 185

Raven, William, (1790-91) 20

Rayner, George William, (1927-30) 222, (1937-38) 251

Real Compañía de las Filipinas, 19

Recovery, (1814-15) 52, (1819-20) 63

Recreational visit, 558, 593, 599, 604, 609

Red Sun, (1990-91) 531

Redmond, Shane, (1982) 459

Reedy, James R., (1962-63) 351

Refuge, sealers, 81, 187

Regain, (1998-99) 593

Regent RFA, (1982) 459

Regina Prima, (1974-75) 401, (1975-76) 407

Regulator, (1799*) 29

Reid, Keith, (1992-93) 543

Reinecke, Volker, (1998-99) 593

Renard, Cape, 256

Resolution HMS, (1772-75) 8

Restitution, (1911-12) 157

Retamozo, Carlos Alberto, (1979-80) 427

Rethval, Aktieselskabet, 159

Revuelto, Antonio, (1954-55) 293

Rey, Pierre de la, (1991-92) 537

Ribas, Juan, (2001-02) 609

Rice, Lee, (1956-57) 311

Richards, Peter Anthony, (1957-58) 319

Richardson, Gustavo, (1976-77) 409

Richardson, Michael George, (1971-72) 385

Riches, Vera May, (1932) 238 Richter, José Bilbao, (1976-77) 409, (1981-82) 448

Ridgeway, John, (1994-95) 568

Ridland, James, (1909) 146

Rieck, Udo, (1979-80) 430

Rifenburgh, E., (1962-63) 351

Right Whale Bay, 29

Rimmer, P., (1982) 459

Río Baker, (1987-88) 508

Río Tunuyán, (1970) 380

Riquita, (1985-86) 492

Risque, (1998-99) 593

Robbins, Edgar F., (1905-06) 129

Robert Island, 318, 350, 366

Roberts, Brian Birley, (1934-37) 246

Roberts, Charles L., (1962-63) 351

Roberts, Kevin James, (1972-73) 391, (1973-74) 395

Robertskollen, 565

Robertson Island, 119, 300, 326

Roche, Antoine de la, (1674-75) 3

Rockefeller Plateau, 316, 351, 363

Rocket, 413, 442, 583

Rogachev, Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich, (1970-72) 383

Rogers, Benjamin Nelson, (1876-77) 103, (1877-78) 104, (1878-79) 106, (1880-82) 107

Rogers, Erasmus Darwin, (1870-71) 92

Rojas, Isaac F., (1956-57) 307

Rolf, (1904) 126

Ronne Ice Shelf, 399, 453, 464, 473

Rookery Bay, 245

Roos, Willy de, (1978-79) 425, (1982-83) 467

Roosevelt Island, 363

Root, Joel, (1802-06) 49

Rootes, David Michael, (1977-78) 414, (1979-80) 428, (1980-81) 438, (1981-82) 449, (1982-83) 462, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480

Rooyen, Roelf Johannes van, (1983-84) 472

Roscoe, John Michael, (1985-86) 488

Rose, Neil Leslie, (1985-86) 488

Rose, Paul Ian, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562, (1995-96) 570, (1996- 97) 575, (1997-98) 583, (1998-99) 589, (1999-2000) 596

Rosita, (1923) 197

Ross Ice Shelf, 363, 399

Ross Ice Shelf Project, 410

Ross Island, 316, 351, 363, 442, 447, 474, 530, 573, 628

Ross Sea, 158, 244, 248, 351, 418, 430, 432, 443, 454, 466, 475, 491, 530, 547, 557, 567, 572, 592, 598, 603

Ross, A. K., (1986) 495

Rosso, Aldo de, (1968) 369

Rossouw, Ernst, (1984) 472

Rothera, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 462, 470, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 628, 630

Rothera Point, 399, 403, 405, 410, 411

Rotterdam VI, (1999-2000) 598

Rouault, Benoît, (1994-95) 568

Roux Island, 310

Roux, Pieter Albertus le, (1961-62) 344

Royal Air Force, 305, 459, 463

Royal Anglian Expedition, 534

Royal Bay, 54, 110, 119, 124, 127, 148, 158, 304, 361, 451, 479

Royal College of Surgeons, 15

Royal Engineers, 438

Royal Geographical Society, 119

Royal Marine detachment, 287, 289, 301, 584

Royal Society, 370

Royal Society International Geophysical Year Expedition (1955-56) 303, 305, 314

Royal Visit, Britain, 309, 627

Roys, Thomas Welcome, (1857-58) 87

R.S.A., (1961-62) 344

Rufino, Montes, 300

Rugged Island, 65

Rumble, Stephen, (1993-94) 552

Run, (1968) 373

Rundle, Arthur S., (1965-66) 363

Russian fishing voyage, 560

Russian naval expedition, 62, 66

Russkaya, 453, 473

Rutford Ice Stream, 497

Ruud, Johan T., (1953) 288

Rydberg, Sven, (1962-63) 351

Ryder, Robert Edward Dudley, (1934-37) 246

Rymill, John Riddoch, (1934-37) 246

S.A. Agulhas, (1982-83) 465, (1983-84) 472, (1990-91) 529, (1994-95) 565, (1998-99) 591, (2007-08) 632

Sabra, (1964*) 358

Sagafjord, (1993-94) 557

Sagitta, (1977-78) 419

Sahrhage, Dietrich, (1975-76) 406, (1977-78) 416

Saint Andrews Bay, 452, 458, 480

St Austell Bay HMS, (1953-54) 289

St Michel, (1995-96) 573

Saint-Paul, 38, 77, 93, 443, 444, 492, 503, 568

Sally, (1795-96*) 27

Sally, (1799-1802) 38

Sally, (1800-03) 42

Salta, 307

Salter, David Frederick, (1968-69) 375Salvageman, (1982) 459, 460

Salvesen Range, 451

Samson, (1907-08) 138

San Antonio, 326

San Carlos, 326

San Giuseppe Due, (1973-74) 398

San Juan, 326

San Martín, 628

San Miguel, (1769) 7

San Pedro, Isla de, 5

San Roque, 300

SANAE, 344

SANAE III, 465, 472, 529, 565, 591

SANAE IV, 565, 591, 628, 632

Sanavirón, (1954-55) 293, (1956-57) 307, (1958) 325

Sandefjord Bay, 302

Sandefjord Hvalfangerselskab, 138

Sandford, Sefton Ronald, (1966-67) 366

Sanso, Bubi, (1996-97) 579

Sanso, Rubén, (1981-82) 448

Santa Fé, (1982*) 458, 459

Santa Maria, (1990-91) 531, (1994-95) 568, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (2001-02) 609

Santa Teresita, Macizo, 300

Santo Christo de Auxilio, (1756) 5

Sappho HMS, (1906) 133

Saragossa, (1931-32*) 241

Sarah W. Hunt, (1882-83) 111, (1889-91) 116, (1891-92) 117

Sarah W. Vorwerk, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Sarandí, (1952) 281

Sarapunin, Valeriy Alekseyevich, (1981-82) 453, (1983-84) 473

Sarie Marais, 465, 529, 565, 591

Sasaki, Yukiyasu, (1966-67) 368

Saturnin, (1990-92) 532, (1994-95) 568

Saunders Island, 251, 281, 301, 337, 341

Savannah, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604

Sawamura, Kouhei, (1976-77) 418

Scheid, Joachim, (1993-94) 559

Scheld, Jürgen, (2000-01) 604

Schepelstrum, (1979-80) 430

Schirmacheroasen, 383, 388, 453, 473, 628

Schlieper Bay, 414, 428, 449, 458

Schmidt, Gordon, (1996-97) 579

Schrader, Karl Wilhelm Otto, (1882-83) 110

Schultze, Adolfo A. R., (1958-59) 326

Schuster, Friedrich, (1993-94) 554

Schwarz, F., (1905) 127

Sciurano, Eduardo, (1954-55) 293

Scoffom, Richard Charlton, (1970-71) 382

Scotcher, Jack, (1980) 428

Scotia Ridge, 331, 337, 342, 355, 362, 365, 375, 386, 403

Scotia Sea, 209, 244, 251, 325, 332, 363, 365, 371, 379, 383, 388, 390, 396, 397, 399, 404, 406, 410, 411, 413, 416, 422, 437, 439, 441, 442, 449, 474, 501, 505

Scotia, (1902-04) 124

Scotland, Cecil Dagwell, (1956-57) 311

Scott Base, 316, 447, 628

Scott Island, 454

Scott Polar Research Institute, 349, 365, 450, 547, 557, 567

Scott, Alexander Gibson, (1973-74) 395

Scott, Robert Lidstone, (1983-84) 470, (1984-85) 480

Scurvy, 81

Sea Mammals Research Unit, 497

Sea Tomato, (1987-88) 509

Seal Nunataks, 119, 278, 290

Sealing industry, 10

Sealing regulation, 150

Seamaster, (2000-01) 604

Searle, Derek John Hatherill, (1955-56) 302

Seemann, I. H. M. D., (1882-83) 110

Sefton, Ronald F., (1965-66) 363

Selby-Smith, George H., (1971-72) 386, (1973-74) 396

Semla, (1908) 142, (1909) 145, 146

Sendall, Alan, (1992-93) 548

Senia, B., (1962-63) 351

Senn, Eduardo, (1980) 435

Septa, (1936*) 249

Serapiall, (1799-1802) 36

Seton, Richard Rioley, (1981-82) 465

Seymour Island, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448, 474, 628

Sgandurra, Ernesto J., (1956-57) 307

Shackleton, 305, 316, 382, 395

Shackleton House, 348

Shackleton Range, 300, 305, 369, 375, 378, 382, 414

Shackleton, Edward Arthur Alexander, Lord, (1976) 405, 408, (1982) 461

Shackleton, Ernest Henry, (1907-09) 447, (1914-16) 175, 180, 182, 361, 394, 399, 403, 487, 560, 579, 580, (1921-22+) 193, 194, 224

Shackleton RRS, (1955-56) 302, (1956-57) 311, (1957-58) 319, (1958- 59) 327, (1959-60) 331, (1960-61) 337, (1961-62) 341, 342, (1962- 63) 349, (1963-64) 355, (1964-65) 359, (1965-66) 362, (1966-67) 365, 366, (1967-68) 369, 371, (1968-69) 375, (1971-72) 386, (1973- 74) 396, (1975-76) 404, (1980-81) 439

Shackleton-Rowett Expedition, (1921-22) 193

Shag Rocks, 6, 7, 9, 11, 18, 19, 65, 74, 75, 76, 78, 81, 82, 85, 86, 88, 104, 118, 121, 133, 149, 188, 206, 300, 346, 392, 400, 402, 485, 490, 501, 525, 537, 542, 582 Shallop Cove, 403

Shannon, Richard Laurence Vere, (1927-30) 222

Shantooti, (1999-2000) 599

Sharp, Michael Colin, (1979-80) 428

Sheffield, James P., (1819-20) 65

Sheldon, Ernest Brian, (1974-75) 399, (1975-76) 403

Shepton, Robert, (1993-94) 559

Shieldaig, (1980-81) 444

Shingebiss II, (1993-94) 559, (1994-95) 568

Shingle Cove, 342

Shirshov, Vladimir Yevgen’yevich, (1983-85) 473

Shirtcliffe, James, (1961-62) 342

Shoemaker, Brian Hall, (1983-84) 474

Shoma, (1934*) 245

Shuttleworth, John, (1799-1800) 30

Sigma, (2003) 615

Signy Island, 190, 248, 266, 268, 275, 278, 283, 290, 296, 302, 311, 316, 319, 327, 331, 337, 342, 349, 350, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 371, 375, 378, 379, 382, 385, 391, 395, 398, 399, 403, 410, 414, 423, 428, 438, 449, 462, 463, 470, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511, 518, 524, 525, 535, 543, 552, 562, 570, 575, 583, 589, 596, 601, 607, 611, 617, 620, 623, 626, 630

Silvano, José M. González, (1956-57) 307

Sinclair, Thomas, (1909) 149

Sinel’nikov, V. V., (1970-71) 383

Siple, 414, 442, 474

Siple, Mount, 474

Sir Ernest Shackleton, (1993-94) 558

Sir Ernest Shackleton RRS, (2002-03) 611, (2003-04) 617, (2004-05) 620, (2005-06) 623, (2006-07) 626, (2007-08) 630

Sir James Clark Ross, (1932-33) 242

Sir James Clark Ross, (1945-46) 258

Sirius, (1977-78) 419

Sivorgfjella, 359

Sjeldche, S., (1926-27) 212

Skedsmo, Sverre, (1932-33) 242

Ski, first Antarctica use, 119

Skif, (1986-87) 500

Skog, Leif, (1983-84) 475, (1990-91) 530, (1991-92) 537, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Skog, Peter, (1999-2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Skookum, (1991-92) 538

Skottsberg, Carl Johan Fredrik, (1907-09) 139

Skua, (1985-86) 492

Skytteren, (1932-33) 242

Sky-Hi, 351

Sladen, William Joseph Lambart, (1949-50) 268

Slava 15, (1949-50) 269, (1957-58) 321

Slava, (1947-48) 263

Slettevoll, I., (1990-91) 525, 530

Slijper, Everhard Johannes, (1946-47) 261

Smal, Pieter Marthinus J., (1994-95) 565

Smart, Robert Arthur, (1956-57) 314

Smith Island, 422, 573

Smith, Andrew James, (1971-72) 385

Smith, Conolly Abel, (1956-57) 309

Smith, Harold, (1953-54) 290

Smith, James F., (1870-71) 90

Smith, James Muir, (1957-58) 319

Smith, John P., (1960-61) 337

Smith, J., (1818-20) 61

Smith, Magnus, (1799-1800) 30, (1830-33) 81

Smith, Michael John, (1977-78) 414, (1978-79) 423

Smith, Phillip Walter James, (1987-88) 505

Smith, Stephen, (1789-90) 17

Smith, Thomas, (1787-88) 14

Smith, Thomas W., (1815-17) 54, (1818-20) 61

Smith, William, (1820-21) 68

Snares, The, 443, 559

Snipe HMS, (1947-48) 262, (1953) 287

Snorre, (1908) 141

Snow Hill Island, 124, 326, 427

Sobral, Cape, 326

Society Explorer, (1984) 475, (1984-85) 482, (1985-86) 491, (1986-87) 502, (1987-88) 508, (1988-89) 515, (1989-90) 522, (1990-91) 530, (1991-92) 537, (1992-93) 547

Sodruzhestvo, 388

Soer, Enn, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572

Sokol/owski, Jan, (1977-78) 419

Sol, (1990-91) 531

Solglimt, (1932-33) 242

Solvra, (1964*) 358

Solyanik, Aleksey Nikolayevich, (1948) 263, (1949-50) 269, (1957-58) 321

Somoza, Carlos S., (1909) 148

Sondra, (1964*) 358

Sorensen, Arne Jacob, (1990-91) 528

Sorgenfri, (1990-91) 531

Sörling, Erik, (1904) 126, (1904-05) 130

So/rlle, Petter, (1911-12) 159, (1925) 208

Sorsa, (1964*) 358

Sourabaya, (1935-36) 247

South African fisheries voyage, 555, 588

South African Mountain Club, 531

South African National Antarctic Expedition, 344, 465, 472, 529, 565, 591, 632

South African naval voyage, 421, 465, 472, 529, 561, 565, 591, 632South African prospecting expedition, 187

South African voyage, 524

South African whaling enterprise, 157

South Arís Expedition, 579

South Geomagnetic Pole, 383, 388, 453, 473, 628

South Georgia, 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 248, 249, 250, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 262, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 318, 319, 320, 322, 323, 324, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 342, 346, 347, 348, 349, 351, 352, 353, 355, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 410, 411, 412, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 423, 424, 425, 426, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 435, 436, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 462, 463, 464, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 525, 526, 527, 528, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 547, 548, 549, 550, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 566, 567, 568, 569, 570, 571, 572, 573, 574, 575, 576, 577, 578, 579, 580, 581, 582, 583, 584, 585, 586, 587, 588, 589, 590, 592, 593, 594, 595, 596, 597, 598, 599, 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 609, 610, 611, 612, 613, 614, 615, 617, 618, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630, 631, 633

South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, 257, 484, 485, 494, 504, 510, 516, 517, 523, 524, 527, 533, 539, 540, 550, 551, 560, 569, 574, 580, 587, 595, 600, 606, 610, 613, 619, 622, 625, 629, 633

South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands voyage, 556, 581

South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Gazette, 486

South Georgia Benthic Survey, 391, 395

South Georgia Biological Expedition, 328, 340

South Georgia Exploration Company, 122, 127, 130

South Georgia Museum, 549, 587, 610, 613, 619, 622, 625, 629, 633

South Georgia Packet, (1813-14) 51

South Georgia Survey, (1951-57) 279, 291, 304, 315, 324

South Georgia Whaling Museum, 527, 541, 549, 560, 569, 574, 580

South Ice, 305, 316

South Orkney Islands, 70, 75, 107, 108, 119, 129, 140, 148, 152, 155, 159, 160, 165, 169, 174, 183, 185, 186, 189, 190, 197, 200, 201, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 216, 217, 223, 224, 231, 234, 237, 242, 244, 248, 253, 254, 256, 257, 262, 265, 266, 278, 289, 294, 302, 311, 335, 360, 365, 366, 371, 376, 378, 382, 398, 404, 410, 414, 417, 418, 419, 423, 424, 428, 433, 435, 436, 438, 443, 449, 454, 458, 462, 463, 466, 470, 471, 475, 476, 480, 481, 482, 488, 489, 491, 493, 497, 501, 502, 505, 506, 508, 511, 512, 513, 515, 518, 519, 522, 525, 526, 528, 530, 535, 536, 537, 543, 544, 547, 548, 552, 553, 557, 562, 563, 567, 570, 571, 572, 575, 576, 578, 583, 584, 585, 589, 590, 592, 596, 597, 598, 601, 602, 603, 607, 608, 611, 612, 617, 618, 620, 621, 623, 624, 626, 627, 630, 631

South Orkneys Benthic Survey, 385, 391

South Pole, 158, 316, 351, 363, 442, 474, 558, 628

South Pole traverse, 158, 305

South Sandwich Islands, 2, 8, 58, 61, 66, 76, 80, 81, 95, 99, 101, 102, 105, 107, 108, 111, 117, 129, 136, 140, 143, 153, 158, 159, 160, 175, 193, 206, 219, 221, 231, 247, 251, 261, 263, 264, 269, 274, 281, 283, 290, 293, 299, 300, 301, 305, 307, 310, 317, 321, 323, 325, 330, 337, 341, 344, 345, 346, 350, 363, 366, 400, 402, 405, 409, 413, 416, 422, 427, 435, 437, 443, 446, 448, 450, 458, 460, 463, 465, 466, 468, 469, 471, 472, 477, 481, 483, 484, 485, 489, 491, 494, 501, 504, 510, 516, 523, 524, 529, 533, 539, 546, 550, 560, 565, 569, 574, 575, 576, 580, 584, 587, 590, 591, 595, 597, 600, 602, 606, 608, 612, 616, 618, 621, 624, 627, 631, 632

South Sandwich Islands Survey, 356

South Sandwich Trench, 210

South Shetland Islands, 10, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 81, 83, 95, 96, 97, 101, 107, 108, 111, 112, 116, 117, 119, 120, 123, 129, 140, 160, 175, 182, 193, 200, 208, 209, 210, 213, 220, 222, 224, 231, 236, 237, 244, 248, 250, 253, 257, 262, 265, 266, 278, 285, 289, 294, 301, 309, 318, 319, 327, 330, 331, 335, 341, 367, 368, 376, 379, 380, 387, 389, 392, 393, 400, 401, 403, 405, 407, 411, 412, 414, 415, 418, 420, 421, 424, 425, 429, 432, 433, 436, 437, 443, 444, 445, 448, 454, 455, 466, 467, 475, 476, 482, 483, 489, 491, 492, 493, 499, 501, 502, 503, 506, 507, 508, 509, 512, 514, 515, 519, 522, 526, 528, 530, 531, 536, 537, 538, 544, 546, 547, 548, 553, 557, 559, 563, 567, 568, 571, 572, 573, 576, 578, 579, 584, 585, 586, 590, 592, 593, 597, 598, 599, 602, 603, 604, 608, 609, 612, 618, 621, 624, 627, 631

South, farthest, 8, 75

Southern Chief, (1961*) 339

Southern Continent, 8

Southern Cross USNS, (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Southern Foster, (1968*) 374

Southern Ice, Exercise, 560

Southern Ocean, 3, 10, 210, 241, 244, 248, 258, 263, 274, 288, 312, 343, 368, 500, 561

Southern Opal, (1954-55) 295

Southern Paul, (1964*) 358

Southern Peter, (1964*) 358

Southern Right Whale, 582

Southern Shore, (1954*) 292

Southern Sky, (1916) 182, (1929*) 229

Southern Spray, (1961*) 339

Southern Star, (1963*) 353

Southern Thule, 160, 293, 305, 341, 363, 366, 405, 409, 435, 446, 448, 460, 463, 469, 471, 529, 546, 565

Southern Venturer, (1945-46) 258, (1952-53) 284

Southern Wave, (1953*) 286

Southern Whaling and Sealing Company, 157

Soviet Antarctic Expedition, 383, 388, 453, 473

Soviet Union Antarctic Fishing Fleet, 390

Soviet Union fisheries voyage, 490, 500

Soviet Union voyage, 449

Soviet Union whaling voyage, 263, 269, 321

Sovietskaya Ukraina, (1972-73) 390

Sôya, (1956-57) 312

Soyuz, 473

Spacatel, (1982) 449

Spanish expedition, 2

Spanish mountaineering expedition, 614

Spanish naval expedition, 18

Spanish voyage, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 19

Spanish yacht cruise, 579

Sparrow, (1790-92) 21

Sparrow HMS, (1948-49) 265

Spartan Glacier, 385, 391, 395, 403, 414

Spaull, Vaughan William, (1968-69) 375

Speary, Andrew George, (1984-85) 480

Spence, John, (1819-20) 62

Spicer, John O., (1889-91) 116

Spichkin, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, (1970-72) 383

Spieβ, Friedrich A. [Fritz], (1925-27) 210

Spirit of Assy, (2000-01) 604

Spivey, Robert Edward, (1954-57) 297

Sposmoker II, (1997-98) 586

Sprightly, (1801-02) 46

Stachlhandske, K., (1913) 169

Stammers, James Walter, (1958-59) 327

Stammwitz, P., (1913-14) 171

Staniland, Iain J., (1997-98) 583

Stanley, 110, 149, 181, 270, 414, 440, 486

Stanley, John, (1984) 478

Stansbury, Michael John, (1958-59) 327

Stark, Peter Radford, (1984-85) 480, (1985-86) 488, (1986-87) 497, (1987-88) 505, (1988-89) 511, (1989-90) 518, (1990-91) 525

Starlight, (1909) 146

Staten Island USS, (1962-63) 351

Station, transfer, 270, 316, 326, 327, 377, 449, 458, 459, 570

Stein, Manfred, (1980-81) 441

Steinbach, Carsten, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

Steinberg, Schreiber, (1975-76) 406, (1977-78) 416

Steinen, Karl von der, (1882-83) 110

Steinsland, Bernt Einar, (1986-87) 502

Stena Seaspread, (1989) 512

Stenhouse, Joseph Russell, (1925-27) 209

Stepanov, Vladimir Mikhaylovich, (1983-85) 473

Stephens, David Robin Kimber, (1957-58) 319

Stevenson, Vivian North, (1960-61) 336

Stewart, Donald, (1988-89) 511

Stina, (1955*) 298

Stock, Gordon Derek, (1948-49) 266

Stockwell, Alan J., (1982) 459, 460

Stokes, Frank Wilbert, (1901-02) 124

Stonehouse, Bernard, (1953-55) 290

Stonington Island, 266, 268, 302, 316, 319, 327, 331, 337, 342, 349, 355, 359, 362, 365, 369, 375, 378, 382, 385, 391, 395, 399

Stora, (1963*) 353

Storer, Nathaniel, (1800-03) 42

Stowe, William Reid, (1986-87) 503

Stranger, Sigurd, (1912) 165

Stranger, (1907-08) 136

Strathfillan Rocks, 231

Stromness, 138, 147, 175, 236, 426, 527, 540

Stromness Bay, 137, 138, 180, 286, 292, 298, 306, 318, 329, 339, 353, 399, 431, 448, 487, 497, 505, 511, 584

Stroud, Edward Dacre, (1951-52) 278

Struin, Oleg Nikolayevich, (1981-83) 453, (1983-85) 473

Stubblefield, William, (1988-89) 514

Sturge Island, 557, 567

Stuxberg, Anton, (1917) 185

Styles, Donald Franklin, (1963-64) 354

Suárez del Cerro, Tomás A., (1958-59) 326

Suárez, Jorge H., (1959) 326Submarine, 458, 459

Success, (1821-22) 71, (1823) 77

Sudero/y, (1945-46) 258

Sudero/, (1906) 131

Sudur Havid, (1998*) 588

Sueyro, Benito, (1924) 201

Suffern Moine, Héctor A., (1954-55) 293

Sugartop, Mount, 361

Suhrmeyer, Lothar, (1982-83) 464

Sumner, Maurice Reginald, (1962-63) 349

Sun Yat-sen, 628

Sunter, Thomas Lacey Murray, (1987-88) 506, (1988-89) 512

Surveyor, (1988-89) 514, (1994-95) 566

Sutej, Mladen, (1996-97) 579

Sutton, Alan William Frank, (1953) 287

Sutton, George A., (1954-55) 295

Svend Foyn [III], (1932-33) 242

Sverdrupfjella, 472, 529

Sviridov, Sergei, (2000-01) 603

Swain, Abraham, (1799-1800) 31

Swain, Howes, (1801-02) 44

Swain, Matthew, (1793-94) 25, (1800-01) 40

Swain, Uriah, (1799-1801) 34

Swain’s Island, 31

Swan, (1808-09) 50

Swanson, Roger, (1987-88) 509, (1991-92) 538

Swarthamaren, 565

Swedish expedition, 362, 496, 525, 543, 591

Swedish Magellan Expedition, 139

Swedish South Polar Expedition (1901-03) 124, 125

Swedish yacht cruise, 467, 476, 532

Sweeney Mountains, 414

Swenson, Keith, (1990-91) 528

Swift, Brian, (1966-67) 365

Swinhoe, Ernest John, (1905) 122, 127

Swiss expedition, 474, 531

Swiss yacht cruise, 538, 548, 559, 573, 586, 593, 599, 604, 609

Swona II, (1925*) 204

Swona, (1908) 142, (1909) 146

Sybil, (1793-94) 25, (1798-99) 28

Sykes, Christopher Charles Robert, (1967-68) 369

Sykes, Ian Andrew, (1968-69) 375

Syowa, 316, 628

Syvertsen, Ingvald, (1906) 132

Szielasko, August Emil Alfred, (1906) 131

Tabarin Peninsula, 293

Tabarin, Operation, 256

Tabarly, Patrick, (1997-98) 586

Tafelberg, (1932-33) 242

Taja, (1998-99) 593

Tallis, Terrence Henry, (1965-66) 362

Tallowin, Jeremy Robin Biscoe, (1971-72) 385

Tamayo, José Carlos, (2003) 614

Taonui, (1996-97) 579

Target Hill, 488

Tartar, (1821-22) 73

Tasmania, 308, 354

Tatham, David Everard, (1993) 550, (1994) 560, (1995) 569

Taylor Glacier, 308, 316, 472

Taylor, Robert, (1996-97) 575

Teake Hadewych, (1991-92) 538

Teie, (1920-21) 190

Tenera Luna, (1995-96) 573

Teniente Cámara, 293, 300, 307, 316, 317, 326, 448

Teniente Esquivel, 293, 300, 469

Teniente Jubany, 448

Teniente Rodolfo Marsh Martín, 454

Terekhov, Viktor, (1994-95) 567

Terra Firma Island, 307

Terrier, Jean-Joseph, (1985-86) 492

Territorial claim, Argentina, 206, 457, 458, Britain, 8, 81, 140, 256, 257, 303, 485, Norway, 220

Tessensohn, Franz, (1979-80) 430, (1982-83) 464

Thayer, William Turpin, (1824-26) 78

The Dove, (1999-2000) 599

The history of the place names in the Falkland Islands Dependencies, 434

Themistoklis, Daskalakis, (1992-93) 537

Theorus, (1991-92) 538

Theron Mountains, 300, 365, 414

Theron, (1955-56) 305

Thomas Hunt, (1874-75) 97, (1882-84) 112

Thomas, Richard, (1986-87) 503

Thom, Ingvar O., (1916) 182

Thompson Island, 209, 231

Thompson, John Whiteside, (1956-57) 311

Thompson, Russell D., (1960-61) 337

Thomson, Colin Sinclair, (1937) 250

Thornley, Ernest Alfred, (1975-76) 403

Thorsen, Gotfred, (1925) 205, (1927) 217, (1928) 223

Thorsen, Ragnor, (1966-71) 364

Thorsen, Thorvald Christian, (1904) 126

Thorshammer, (1932-33) 242

Thorshammer, (1945-46) 258

Throsk, (1990-91) 527

Thule Island, 300, 301, 448, 469, 524, 632

Thurston Island, 480 Tiama, (1998-99) 593

Tickell, William Lancelot Noyes, (1955-56) 302, (1958-59) 328, (1961) 340, (1962-64) 352

Tidespring RFA, (1982) 459, (1983) 469

Tidey, Raymond John, (1964-65) 359

Tidholm, Göran, (1989-90) 518

Tierra del Fuego, 2, 13, 42, 58, 75, 76, 83, 93, 109, 120, 124, 139

Tigre-Mou, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586

Tijuca, (1926) 211, (1927) 216, 217, (1928) 223, (1931) 234, 235

Tilbrook, Peter John, (1961-62) 342, (1962-63) 349, (1963-64) 356

Tilman, Harold William, (1966-67) 367

Titan, (1980-81) 441

Toanui, (1998-99) 593

Tober, Dirk, (1996-97) 579

Todd, Edward P., (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Todrig, Francis, (1801-02) 46, (1814-15) 52, (1815-16) 53, (1817-18) 56

Todrig, James, (1817-18) 56, (1818-19) 59, (1819-20) 62

Tofte, Eyvind, (1926-27) 213

Tokyo University of Marine Science, 312, 343, 368

Tom Crean, (1997) 579

Tomas, Eduardo Pérez, (1954-55) 293, (1955-56) 300

Tombigbee USS, (1962-63) 351

To/nsbergs Hvalfangeri, 137, 190, 200, 219

Tooluka, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604

Torii, Tetsuya, (1965-66) 363

Tornquist Bay, 272

Totorore, (1984-86) 483

Tottan, (1955-56) 303, (1956-57) 314, (1957-58) 319, 320, (1958-59) 327

Tottanfjella, 314, 342, 349, 355, 359

Tourist visit, 200, 380, 389, 401, 407, 412, 432, 443, 448, 454, 466, 475, 476, 482, 491, 502, 508, 515, 522, 530, 531, 537, 538, 547, 548, 557, 558, 559, 567, 568, 572, 578, 579, 585, 586, 592, 593, 594, 598, 599, 603, 604, 609

Toxopeus, Henk, (1990-91) 529

Trabuchi, Jorge, (1993-94) 559

Tradewind, (1988-89) 515, (1990-91) 531, (1991-92) 538

Träl, (1959-60) 332

Trancart, Yannick, (1981-82) 455, (1983-84) 476

Transit of Venus, 93, 110

Transport, (1832) 81

Travel Crest Seawave, (1991*) 533

Travers, Terry, (1998-99) 593

Trinity Island, 293

Trinity Land, 81

Trinity Peninsula, 66, 124, 497

Trinity, (1870-71) 92, (1876-77) 103, (1877-78) 104, (1878-79) 106

Tristan da Cunha, 4, 38, 41, 45, 70, 75, 77, 187, 188, 193, 209, 309, 310, 331, 334, 337, 380, 491

Tritton, Alan George, (1952-53) 283

Troalen, Olivier, (1985-86) 492

Troitskiy, Emmanuil Nikolayevich, (1970-71) 383, (1971-72) 388

Troll, 628

Trombetta, César, (1976-77) 409, (1980-81) 437, (1981-82) 448, (1982) 458

Trott, Norman Edward, (1963-64) 354

Tula, (1830-33) 81

Tulk, Robert, (1997-98) 583

Tulla, (1911-12) 160

Turnbull, David Harrison, (1959-60) 331, (1960-61) 337, (1961-62) 342, (1962-63) 349, (1963-64) 355, (1964-65) 359, (1965-66) 362, (1966-67) 365, (1967-68) 369, (1968-69) 375

Turnbull, Ian, (1984) 479

Turner, Alfred, (1870-71) 92

Turner, Robert Milligan, (1991-92) 536, (1992-93) 544

Turner, William, (1953-54) 290

Turrado, Fernando Hipólito, (1979-80) 427

Tweit, Aad, (2001-02) 609

Twelves, Eric Laird, (1969-70) 378

T.W.I., (1911-12) 157, (1921*) 191

Tyabin, Nikolay Ivanovich, (1983-85) 473

Tyler, L., (1999-2000) 599

Typhoon, (2003) 615

Tyree, David Merrill, (1962) 351

Ukrainian expedition, 552, 570

Ukrainian fishing voyage, 560

Umitaka-maru, (1956-57) 312, (1961-62) 343, (1966-67) 368

Undine Rock, 183, 231

Undine South Harbour, 338

Undine, (1908) 143, (1909) 139, 149, (1911) 158, (1912) 165, (1914) 174, (1916) 183, (1917) 185

Unicorn, (1832) 81

Union, (1802) 48

United States Antarctic Program, 422, 428, 441, 442, 449, 470, 474, 480, 488, 497, 505, 511

United States Antarctic Research Program, 340, 347, 351, 352, 363, 382, 409, 410, 413

United States expedition, 300

United States fisheries voyage, 542

United States Geodetic Satellite Survey, 372

United States Geological Survey, 403

United States oceanographic voyage, 499, 507, 514, 566

United States recreational visit, 558

United States relief flight, 369

United States sealing voyage, 24, 29, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 58, 64, 65, 74, 78, 80, 82, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 144, 166

United States voyage, 177, 325, 546, 582

United States whaling voyage, 31, 34, 35, 36, 64, 87, 100, 108, 166

United States yacht cruise, 492, 503, 509, 531, 538, 548, 559, 568, 579, 593, 599

Universidad y Museo de La Plata, 235

University of Birmingham, 337, 349, 370, 404, 439

University of Marine Science, Tokyo, 312, 343, 368

University, Iowa State, 381

Uragan, (1978-79) 432

Urengoy, (1981-82) 453

Uruguay, 200

Uruguayan relief expedition, 180

Uruguay, (1903) 124, (1909) 148, (1910) 152, (1911) 155, (1919) 186

Usov, Vladimir Borisovich, (1983-85) 473

Ussopov, Gennadiy, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Uzolin, Vladimir Ivanovich, (1981-82) 453

Vago, Ricardo, (1923) 197, 198

Vague-à-Bond, (1996-97) 579

Vahsel Bay, 395

Vahsel, Richard, (1911-12+) 158

Valentiner, Hugo, (1919) 186, (1923) 197

Valette, Eduardo Aníbal, (1954-55) 293

Valhalla, (1996-97) 579, (1997-98) 586

Vallance, Mark, (1970-71) 382

Varela, Benigno I. M., (1954-55) 293

Varela, Luis Rodríguez, (1958-59) 326

Vasiliy Fedoseyev, (1981-82) 453

Vasilyev, Viktor, (1993-94) 557, (1995-96) 572, (1997-98) 585, (1999- 2000) 598, (2000-01) 603

Vasyuk, Vyacheslav, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585

Vaughan, Norman D., (1993-94) 558

Vaux, C., (1865) 88

Veal, Robert E., (1981-82) 451

Vegewind, (1998-99) 593

Vema, (1958) 325

Veniard, Claude, (1996-97) 579

Venter, Terise, (1998-99) 591

Ventimiglia, Luis O., (1957-58) 317

Venus, Transit, 93, 110

Vermooten, Carl Arnold, (1982-83) 465

Verpeide, Arne, (1982-83) 464

Verstaeten, Julio, (1997-98) 586

Veryan Bay HMS, (1950) 273, (1952) 282, (1954-55) 294

Veslegard, 147

Vesleskarvet, 591, 628, 632

Vespucci, Amerigo, (1501-02) 1

Vestfold, (1932-33) 242

Vicecomodoro Marambio, 409, 413, 422, 427, 437, 448

Victoria Land, 351, 430, 441, 464

Videla, Juan Carlos, (1978-79) 422

Viens-tu, (1998-99) 593

View Point, 283, 290, 296, 311, 349

Viking Bay, (2003) 615

Viktorov, Igor, (1995-96) 572

Villa Haaplo/s, 220

Village Belle, (1910-11) 153

Villalobos, Luis Tristán de, (1954-55) 293

Vincennes Bay, 308, 628

Vindication Island, 281, 310, 337, 341

Vinogradov, Nikolay, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Viñuales, Carlos A., (1952) 281

Virgen de las Nieves, 326

Visokoi Island, 301, 337

Visser, Klaas, (1946-47) 261

Vistamar, (1991-92) 537, (1994-95) 567, (1997-98) 585

Volcanic eruption, 61, 70, 75, 76, 119, 247, 300, 341, 344, 345, 350, 369, 375, 376, 382, 616

Volkle, Thomas C., (1980-81) 442

Volkov, Sergey Ivanovich, (1971-72) 388

Von Harling, Hartwig, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567

Vorob’yev, Anatoliy Nikolayevich, (1971-73) 388

Vorster, Jan Adriaan Jacobus Botha, (1994-95) 565

Vos, Robert, (2000-01) 604

Voss, Harald, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1997-98) 586, (1998- 2001) 594

Vostok, 383, 388, 453, 473, 628

Vostok, (1819-21) 66

Vostok, (1972) 390

Vostok-I, 316

Voyou, (1998-99) 593

Vtorov, Igor, (1999-2000) 598

Wagenveld, Cornelius Jan Hendrik, (1978) 421

Wager, Andrew Chester, (1968-69) 375

Wainwright, Phillip, (1970-71) 382

Wakeford, R., (1999-2000) 599

Walker, Anthony, (1994-95) 562

Walker, Richard Simon, (1970-71) 382

Wallace, Robert, (1997-98) 585

Wallis, Derek Alan, (1976-77) 411, (1977-78) 415

Wallis, Roger, (1997-98) 586, (1999-2000) 599, (2000-01) 604

Walter, Christopher David, (1964-65) 359, (1965-66) 362 Walther Herwig, (1975-76) 406, (1977-78) 416, (1980-81) 441

Walton, Jonathan Launcelot William, (1974-75) 399

Wanderer III, (1998-99) 593

Wanderer, (1880-81) 107

Wang, Edmund, (1920-21) 190

War, Falkland Islands and Dependencies (1982) 448, 449, 450, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, Second World (1939-45) 253, 256, 258

War Baby, (1986-87) 503, (1993-94) 559

Ward, Basil Chrystie, (1953-54) 289

Ward, Walter Stephen Peter, (1952-53) 283

Warne, Phillip, (1975-76) 404

Washington, Basil G., (1932) 239

Wasp, (1822-24) 76

Waterboat Point, 193

Waterhouse, John Valentine, (1948-49) 265

Watkins Island, 300

Watson, Thomas J., (1985-86) 492

Watson, William, (1793-94) 25

Watt, Arthur, (1963) 348

Wayfarer IV, (1983-84) 476

Webb, Allen W., (1965-66) 363

Weddell Sea, 75, 76, 119, 158, 175, 193, 233, 237, 253, 293, 301, 331, 388, 396, 399, 422, 430, 439, 440, 449, 464, 480, 584

Weddell, James, (1821-22) 70, (1822-24) 75

Weight, Robert, (1992-93) 543

Welcome Islands, 229

Welle, Ivar, (1910) 167

Weller, Milton W., (1970-71) 381

Wellington, (1825) 78

Wennersgaard, Ole Christian, (1901-03+) 124

Werner Kube, (1980) 436

Werring, Bjo/rn J., (1980-81) 442, (1983-84) 474

Weser, (1975-76) 406

West, Christopher, (1994-95) 568

Westri, (1994-95) 568

Westwind USCGC, (1983-84) 474

Weymouth HMS, (1921) 192

Weyprecht, Karl, (1882-83) 109

Whale oil, production, 236

Whale, largest recorded, 156

Whalers Bay, 287

Whales, Bay of, 248, 603

Whaling industry, 125, 126, 258, 540

Whaling regulation, 130

Whaling station, 119, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 142, 145, 146, 147, 149, 190, 426, 527

Whaling, bomb lance, 87

White, Martin Guy, (1997) 581

Whiteman, Paul Ian, (1965-66) 362

Whitmore Mountains, 470

Whittamore, Leslie Peter, (1993-94) 552, (1994-95) 562, (1997-98) 583, (1998-99) 589

Wichels, Heinz, (1979-80) 430

Wicht, Jorge Federico Pablo, (1954-55) 293

Wiencke Island, 293, 403, 414, 432

Wiggin, Donald, (1980-81) 442

Wild Animals and Birds Protection Ordinance, 170

Wild Animals and Birds (South Georgia) 170

Wild Birds Preservation Ordinance, 170

Wild Flower, (1993-94*) 559

Wild, John Robert Francis [Frank], (1914-16) 175, (1921-22) 193

Wildhaditurm, (1988-89) 515

Wilhelm Archipelago, 379

Wilkes, 316, 354

Wilkes Land, 308, 418

Wilkins, George Hubert, (1920-21) 193, (1928-29) 246, (1929-30) 222

Wilkins, John, (1983) 469

Wilkinson, Gregory Mark, (1990-91) 525

Wilkinson, John Valentine, (1955-56) 301, (1956-57) 310

Will, Hermann, (1882-83) 110

Willem Barendsz., (1946-47) 261

Willems, Eef, (1996-97) 579, (1998-99) 593, (1999-2000) 599

Willey, Ian Macdonald, (1968-69) 375

William F. Safford, (1857-58) 87

William IV, King, (1830-31) 81

William Scoresby HMS, (1943-44) 256

William Scoresby RRS, (1927-30) 222, (1930-32) 233, (1937-38) 251

William Scoresby RSS, (1926-27) 214

William, Mount, 81

Williams Air Operations Facility, 316

Williams, Anthony David, (1987-88) 505

Williams, John L., (1874-75) 96, (1875-76) 99, (1876-77) 102

Willis Islands, 330

Williwaw, (1978-79) 425, (1982-83) 467

Wilson, James Innes, (1909-14) 149

Wilson, R. A., (1965-66) 363

Wilts, Erich, (1981-82) 455, (1990-92) 532, (1992-93) 548, (1993-94) 559, (1995-96) 573, (1997-98) 586

Windmill Islands, 316, 354

Winter, solitary, 338, South Georgia, 54

Winter Island, 246, 290, 331

Winter stations, 316, 628

Winterhunde, (1927) 216

Wirth, Lawrence G., (1965-66) 363

Wiström, Harald, (1911) 155, (1913+) 169

Witty, Peter Richard, (1978-79) 423, (1980-81) 438, (1981-82) 449

Wolkersdorfer, Werner, (1985-86) 491, (1986-87) 502

Woodfield, Thomas, (1964-65) 359, (1965-66) 362, (1966-67) 365, (1967-68) 369, (1968-69) 375, (1970-71) 382, (1971-72) 385, (1972- 73) 391, (1973-74) 395

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 582

Woods, Allan Richard, (1969-70) 378

Woodville, (1919) 187, (1922) 194

Woodward, Roswell, (1792-94) 24

Wooton, Alan, (1982-83) 462

World Discoverer, (1979-80) 432, (1980-81) 443, (1981-82) 454, (1982-83) 466, (1983-84) 475, (1984-85) 482, (1985-86) 491, (1986- 87) 502, (1987-88) 508, (1988-89) 515, (1989-90) 522, (1990-91) 530, (1991-92) 537, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567, (1995-96) 572, (1996-97) 578, (1997-98) 585, (1998-99) 592, (1999- 2000) 598

Wormald, Steven, (1972-73) 391, (1973-74) 395, (1974-75) 399, (1975-76) 403, (1976-77) 410

Worsley, Frank Arthur, (1914-16) 175

Worswick, Ronald Francis, (1952-53) 283, (1955-56) 302

Worth, William, (1825) 78

Wreck, 27, 28, 29, 30, 43, 54, 56, 58, 61, 79, 81, 82, 104, 124, 126, 131, 132, 137, 146, 147, 157, 160, 175, 178, 179, 180, 191, 204, 205, 225, 229, 241, 245, 248, 249, 272, 276, 286, 292, 298, 306, 326, 329, 334, 339, 353, 358, 364, 374, 391, 415, 455, 458, 459, 468, 532, 533, 559, 588, 615

Wreford-Brown, Christopher Louis, (1982) 459

Wright, Graham Kenneth, (1973-74) 395

Wright, Jason, (1994) 560

Wyandot USS, (1965-66) 363

Wyer, Obediah, (1799-1802) 36

Wyeth, Capt., (1856) 86

Wynne-Edwards, Cecil John Copner, (1963-64) 356

Yacht cruise, 367, 384, 393, 398, 420, 425, 433, 444, 445, 455, 456, 467, 476, 483, 492, 493, 503, 509, 531, 532, 533, 538, 548, 549, 558, 559, 568, 573, 579, 586, 593, 594, 599, 604, 605, 609

Yámana, (1954-55) 293

Yankee, (1824-26) 78

Yapeyú, 293

Yarmouth HMS, (1982) 459, 460

Yarra, (1995-96) 573

Yoldia, (1972-73*) 391

Yorkshireman, (1982) 459

Yoshi, Capt., (1985-86) 492

Young William, (1795-96) 27

Young, Brian Gilmore, (1982) 459

Zachaarakis, George, (1992-93) 547

Zakalashnyuk, Aleksey, (1998-99) 592, (1999-2000) 598

Zander, Ralf, (1988-89) 515, (1989-90) 522, (1990-91) 530, (1992-93) 547, (1993-94) 557, (1994-95) 567

Zaratiegui, Gerado, (1958+) 326

Zatz, Daniel, (1980-81) 437

Zavadovskiy, Ivan Ivanovich, (1819-21) 66

Zavodovski Island, 66, 80, 143, 321, 337, 345, 356, 363, 466, 472, 524, 529, 565

Zbucki, Luis Antonio, (1979-80) 427

Zeitzschel, B., (1980-81) 441

Zhongshan, 628

Ziegler, François Xavier, (1919) 187

Ziembo, Zbigniew, (1977-78) 419

Zusman, Yuriy Mikhaylovich, (1981-83) 453

Zwilgmeyer, Frithjof, (1914-16) 167

1° de Mayo, (1925) 207

17° de Agosto, 307

33-Export, (1981-82*) 455

101 In Sung, (2003) 615

2041, (2000-01) 604, (2001-02) 609

GSGSSI Visitor Briefing Film Updated

Photo – Steve Brown GSGSSI

The Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands has released an updated visitor briefing film. Twenty minutes long, it is required viewing for all visitors to South Georgia before arrival, including pointers to ensure a low-impact visit. It is narrated by Sir David Attenborough, and contains some stunning film footage from the BBC natural History unit.

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